100 Causes for 100 Spills


100 Causes for 100 Pipeline Oil-Spills

I would shudder to put Exxon and Yellowstone in the same sentence, especially when “oil spill” is in there as well, but Murphy’s Law rules again.
Same for putting Enbridge and Kinder Morgan in the same sentence with British Columbia. Murphy’s Law will always rule. See the following latest examples:
2004 – On November 9, in Walnut Creek, California, a petroleum pipeline carrying gasoline to San Jose, California, owned and operated by Kinder Morgan Energy Partners (KMEP) was struck by a backhoe… A massive gasoline spill was subsequently ignited, resulting in an explosive fireball that caused the deaths, by burns, of four workers and one supervisor and the severe injury of five others…

2007 – On November 27, an oil pipeline owned by Enbridge exploded in Clearbrook, Minnesota, during repairs, causing the deaths of two employees… Enbridge was cited for failing to safely and adequately perform maintenance and repair activities…

2010 – On July 26, Enbridge reported that a 30-inch (760 mm) pipeline had burst in Marshall, Michigan. The company estimates over 800,000 US gallons (3 million litres) of crude oil had leaked into Talmadge Creek, a waterway that feeds the Kalamazoo River, which is a gross underestimation, since EPA reports over 1,139,569 gallons of oil have been recovered as of November 2011…

Last but not least, the worst blasphemy against the ecological Holy of holies:

2011 – On July 2, ExxonMobil spilled an estimated 1500 barrels of crude oil into the Yellowstone River in south-central Montana. Some residents of Laurel, Montana had to be evacuated. The break near Billings fouled the riverbank and forced municipalities and irrigation districts to close intakes. Evacuation starting about 12:15 a.m. Saturday due to concerns about possible explosions and the overpowering fumes of petroleum and benzene… high water flow in the Yellowstone River may have scoured the river bed and exposed the pipe…

The above are just 4 pipeline oil-spills out of the hundreds since pipeline oil-spills began, the notable ones being listed below. When you go through them, please pay special attention to their causes. You will see that it is not one-cause-fits-all, not even ten causes. Take a glance at this list first:

– runaway horse
– longitudinal welded seam failures
– flooding
– 60-70 defects in one line
– bulldozer
– valve failure
– trench digging machine
– defective welds
– front loader
– pile-driver
– previous damage
– stuck relief valve
– shooting
– cracks from welding
– explosives
– leaky system
– improper sampling procedures
– failed gasket
– starting against a closed valve
– closed valve that should be open
– pipeline damage during installation
– previous mechanical damage
– over-pressurization
– improperly assembled compression coupling
– workers not following the proper procedures
– hit in a valve by a front loader
– stress corrosion cracking
– subsidence of underground coal mines
– design and operating deficiencies
– earth movement
– explosive device
– improper lowering
– accidental boring
– lightning strike
– lightning caused computer malfunction
– cracked girth weld
– delay in shutting down the pipeline
– electrical resistance welded (ERW) seam failure
– pipeline segment seam failure
– too shallow soil cover
– ERW seam selective corrosion failure
– electrical interference to Cathodic protection from other pipelines
– ERW seam fatigue crack
– damage from train derailment cleanup
– overstress due to landslide
– prior excavation damage
– reservoir overfilled
– struck by flood debris
– delay in shutting off valve after rupture
– lightning strike shutting valve
– operators ignoring alarm from pipeline’s SCADA system
– valve wrongly open or closed
– calculation error
– pipeline buckled and cracked
– material toughness – lack of
– failed gasket on an interface detector
– dent in the pipe
– a break in a miter bend in the pipe
– corrosion-fatigue cracking
– preexisting weld defect
– loss of pipe coating integrity
– release was not discovered and addressed
– severe internal corrosion
– faulty pipeline mapping
– pipeline not being marked
– flowed for two hours before stopping
– frost
– hole in the pipeline caused by high-voltage arcing
– wall thickness loss of >80% caused by corrosion
– cracking caused by train shipping and delivery
– failed gasket on a block valve
– line was corroded
– vandalism
– terrorism
– misinterpretation of fact
– misread an as built map
– incorrectly marked the pipeline’s route
– leak detection system not effective
– hit by construction equipment
– ruptured filet weld
– pipeline company failed to detect and stop the leak within 24 hours
– internal corrosion
– accidental drilling into pipeline
– lack of proper maintenance
– pinhole leak
– pressure regulator failure
– stress on a girth weld
– drag racing collision
– depth of soil coverage
– local soil corrosiveness
– etc.

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My point is: They can’t say, “Well, we have better pipes now, so there won’t be any more spills,” because all the other factors, especially human error, are still very much in play, and new factors emerge as climate change unfolds.  Give me one reason why the Enbridge and Kinder Morgan pipelines should go ahead in BC, and I will give you 100 reasons why not.

Following is a list of major pipeline oil-spill disasters in the United States since 1930, which contains all the above causes:1930 – On May 24, a runaway horse smashed a wagon of lumber against a crude oil pipeline in Ripon, Wisconsin. The oil ignited and spread to nearby oil tanks, causing a blaze that destroyed a number of buildings.1936 – On November 21, a pipeline serving a loading dock in Port Arthur, Texas, ruptured and ignited. The burning oil killed 3 people, and injured 6 others.1939 – On August 12, residents of Crawfordsville, Indiana saw oil spraying into the air, and thought it was an oil well gusher. It was actually an oil pipeline that had failed. There was no fire.1939 – On December 12, a pipeline being tested ruptured for 40 miles (64 km), near Wichita Falls, Texas, injuring one person.1940 – On June 19, a crude oil pipeline leaks oil into Swan Creek near Toledo, Ohio. Farm employees in the area set the oil on fire to eliminate it.

1943 – On May 18, flooding along the Arkansas River broke the “Big Inch” pipeline near Little Rock, Arkansas. It took almost 7 days to build a pipeline bypass around the failed area.

1943 – On August 31, The Office of the Petroleum Administrator for War Secretary Ickes denied allegations that a series of breaks in the “Big Inch” pipeline were due to design flaws. Later, it was noted that this pipeline had a number of longitudinal welded seam failures.

1943 – The “Big Inch” crude oil pipeline extension broke for the fifth time, this time in Lansdale, Pennsylvania, on September 5. The crude caught fire.

1943 – The “Big Inch” pipeline suffers its seventh leak to that pipeline, or it’s branches, on September 19,

1943 – On December 3, the “Big Inch” broke near Okeana, Ohio.

1944 – On January 7, the “Big Inch” pipeline ruptures and spills crude oil in Linden, New Jersey.

1944 – On January 9 it was announced that the completion of the “Little Big Inch” pipeline was delayed by 2 months, due to 60 to 70 defects being found in that pipeline system.

1944 – The “Big Inch” crude oil pipeline ruptures in Connellsville, Pennsylvania, with the crude spill killing fish along a 12-mile (19 km) stretch of the Laurel Hill creek.

1948 – On February 28, crude oil spilled from a ruptured pipeline leading to storage tank in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Some teen boys in the area saw crude oil bubbling out of manhole covers, and thought that igniting the oil would be a good idea. This caused a string of sewer explosions, causing manhole covers to fly 10 feet (3.0 m) into the air.

1950 – On March 13, an overhead pipeline at a refinery in Martinez, California leaked, causing flammable fumes to spread onto a highway. An automobile ignited the fumes, killed a woman, and injuring 2 other in vehicle. 3 auto were also burned.

1950 – A series of hydrostatic tests on the “Big Inch” pipeline led to 70 ruptures of that pipeline in the New Jersey area.

1950 – On September 8, a bulldozer ruptured a 6 inch pipeline in Baldwin, Pennsylvania on September 8, causing gasoline to spray 50 feet into the air, and onto homes. Firefighters had to house down a wide area to disperse the gasoline. There was no fire or injuries.

1951 – Two men welding on a crude oil pipeline at an oil Terminal in Kansas City, Kansas were severely burned on January 7, when a nearby valve failed, and sprayed them with crude oil that ignited. Both later died of their burns.

1952 – On December 29, twelve persons were injured in a blast that shook the Lawndale district of Los Angeles, California, when a ditching machine broke a gasoline-carrying pipeline and touched off a fiery explosion.

***1953 – Five square miles of east Boston, Massachusetts was evacuated on September 9 from a pipeline leaking about 1,000,000 US gallons (3,800,000 L) of gasoline.

1954 – A leaking LP gas distribution line was blamed for causing an explosion in Goldsboro, North Carolina on April 12 that killed 5 people, injured 15 others, and demolished 3 buildings. The LPG distribution system was 40 to 50 years old, and had other leaks in that city.

**1955 – A burst pipeline at a Refinery in Sunburst, Montana contaminated groundwater and soil in the area. Despite pumping out over 182,000 US gallons (690,000 L) of gasoline, pollution from the accident remained. In 2004, local residents and a school district won a Lawsuit for payments for damages.

*1955 – A drag line operation in a gravel pit in Irving, Texas ruptured an 8 inch diameter gasoline pipeline on November 30. Gasoline spread out over about 10 acres (40,000 m2), then exploded and burned.

1956 – A trench digging machine being used in building a freeway cut into a gasoline pipeline in West Los Angeles, California on February 27. At least 3 people were burned, with 9 homes, a warehouse, and a laundry caught fire.

1958 – On October 4, a gasoline pipeline was ruptured by a bulldozer in Hobbs, New Mexico. The gasoline ignited, injuring 3 people, damaging 6 homes, and threatened a number of other homes for a time.

*1958 – On November 9, a jet fuel pipeline ruptured near the Blue Creek in Idaho. Fuel flowed down the creek, and later ignited, damaging one home and destroying 6 bridges. Several were sicked by the fumes made by the incident.

*1959 – A 20 inch diameter gasoline pipeline burst near Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania on April 29, spilling gasoline into fishing streams and fields. The pipeline had recently been built.

1959 – A worker on gas transmission pipeline was closing a valve, when it exploded near Newton, Pennsylvania on September 25. The worker was killed, and another worker was injured.

1959 – A cleaning device apparently ruptured a 10 inch diameter NGL pipeline, south of Austin, Texas, on October 8. 300 to 400 people were evacuated. The gas eventually dissipated safely.

1961 – On October 9, vapors from a leaking pipeline on an oil storage tank exploded and burned in Bridgeport, Illinois. 4 oil company workers were killed, and 3 others injured.

1962 – On September 11, an 8 inch propane/LPG pipeline was ruptured by road building equipment near Eatonton, Georgia. One of the road workers was overcome and asphyxiated by the propane fumes. Propane fumes followed the Oconee River for 10 miles (16 km) into Lake Sinclair.

1963 – On November 17, flammable liquids leaking from a pipeline disposal pit were accidentally ignited, killing a teen planning to cook alongside a creek in South Carolina.

**1964 – On October 29, a crude oil pipeline ruptured in Gilbertown, Alabama. More than 72,000 US gallons (270,000 L) of oil were spilled.

*1965 – On April 3, a crude oil pipeline ruptured east of Blanding, spilling about 5,000 barrels (790 m3) of crude oil into the San Juan River. The ruptured pipeline was reported to flow “wide open” for over an hour.

1965 – On August 23, 8 inch diameter gasoline pipeline ruptured in Sylvania, Ohio. The danger of fire or explosion forced evacuations of residents in a 2-square-mile (5.2 km2) area. There was no fire.

1965 – On October 25, a ruptured pipeline spilled naphtha in Mount Cory, Ohio, forcing evacuations until the naphtha evaporated.

1967 – Manufacturers Light and Heat Company announced they were requesting to the Federal Power Commission permission to allow a new pipeline to replace 73.5 miles of older pipeline, which was having 200 to 450 leaks a year in Eastern Pennsylvania.

***1967 – On June 30, a leaking pipeline released 30,000 barrels (4,800 m3) of JP-4 grade jet fuel in Wilmington, California. There was no fire.

1968 – On January 27, a petroleum products pipeline was discovered to be leaking near Kokomo, Mississippi. Damage to cotton crops and water wells was discovered soon afterward.

***1968 – On April 15, gasoline odor was detected at a drinking fountain in Glendale, California. The source of the water well that fed the fountain was determined to be a 8 inch pipeline that was leaking. Between 100,000 and 250,000 US gallons (950,000 L) of gasoline were leaked into the local groundwater.

1968 – On August 7, a contractor laying a new pipeline broke an old pipeline in Norwalk, Ohio, spilling gasoline for 4 hours into the Huron River.

**1968 – On August 22, a 16 inch diameter gasoline pipeline ruptured at General Mitchell Field, spilling almost 200,000 US gallons (760,000 L) of gasoline, and forcing closure of one runway. Previous damage to the pipeline by heavy equipment working in the area was identified as the cause of the rupture.

1968 – A coal company digging machine hit an 8 inch LPG pipeline in Fulton County, Illinois on September 3, killing one person and injuring 4 others.

1968 – 2 teen boys shooting a rifle ignited gasoline leaking from a petroleum pipeline pumping station near Midland, Pennsylvania on November 3. A large brush fire ensued. Both boys had moderate burns. A stuck relief valve on the pipeline was the cause of the leakage.

1968 – On December 5, an LPG pipeline, near Yutan, Nebraska ruptured on December 5. Repair crews responded to the pipeline rupture, and thought LPG vapors were dispersed, but ignited the vapor cloud by driving into it. Five repairmen were killed. After the accident, the Nebraska State Fire Marshal ordered MAPCO to reduce its operating pressure, and to hydrostatic retest 52 miles (84 km) of that pipeline. During the tests, 195 longitudinal seams failed.

1969 – On January 13, a 22 inch diameter crude oil pipeline ruptured in Lima, Ohio, spilling over 2,000 US gallons (7,600 L) of oil into the sewer system. Cracks from welding were blamed for the failure.

**1969 – On February 24, a leaking crude oil pipeline caused a slick 35 miles (56 km) long in the Dry Creek near Greybull.

1969 – A 10 inch pipeline carrying aviation gasoline was ruptured by explosives on March 17 in Canyon, California. The fuel caught fire short after that.

**1970 – Early on September 2, residents of Jacksonville, Maryland, detected gasoline odors and noticed gasoline in a small creek flowing beneath a nearby road. Because fumes were still present in the late afternoon of September 2, a resident notified Colonial Pipeline at 6:19 p.m. about the situation. About 12 hours later, on the morning of September 3, an explosion and fire occurred in a ditch in which contractor personnel for Colonial were manually digging to further expose the pipeline & catch gasoline trickling from the ground. Five persons were injured, none fatally. The NTSB later pointed out that workers had failed to use a flammable vapor percent detector during the work. The leak point was found 4 days later. The failure resulted in a release of 30,186 gallons (718 barrels) of gasoline and kerosene.

1970 – On September 7, a pipeline leaked thousands of gallons of gasoline onto farmland near Ontario, Oregon. Roads were closed in the area until the gasoline was removed.

*1970 – On December 28, a 12 inch diameter pipeline ruptured in Jackson, Wisconsin, spilling 200 barrels (32 m3) of fuel oil into a wildlife sanctuary.

1972 – On January 12, the second pipeline leak in a month into the Tippecanoe River in Indiana on a Buckeye Pipeline company (now Buckeye Partners ) line hit. The Buckeye Pipeline was owned by the bankrupt Penn Central Railroad, preventing money from being spent on repairs. One EPA official stated “they know they have a leaky system“.

**1972 – On January 11, a 10 inch diameter pipeline ruptured in Clinton, Montana, spilling 3,000 barrels (480 m3) of diesel fuel, with some of it reaching the Clark Fork River.

1972 – On January 29, during the blowdown of a pipeline dehydrator, LPG fumes caught fire at Conway, Kansas.

*1972 – On February 12, a pipeline rupture spilled 16,000 US gallons (61,000 L) of diesel fuel into the Spokane River.

1972 – On September 6, a gasoline pipeline ruptured and ignited at a Plantation Pipeline Terminal in Bremen, Georgia. For a time, there were fears the fire might spread to nearby fuel storage tanks, but the fire was limited to the pipeline.

***1972 – In October, a crude oil pipeline ruptures near Shiprock, New Mexico, spilling 285,000 US gallons (1,080,000 L) of crude oil into the San Juan River, polluting it for 200 miles.

1973 – On February 22, in Austin, Texas, a natural gas liquids (NGL) pipeline ruptured due to an improper weld. A passing car or truck set off a vapor cloud explosion and fire. Six people were killed, and 2 others injured.

*1973 – On May 2, a 10 inch diameter pipeline ruptured in Murray, Idaho, causing a mist of diesel fuel to cover homes and trailers. Between 7,000 and 10,000 US gallons (38,000 L) of fuel were lost. Some of the fuel reached a nearby creek. There was no fire.

1973 – On May 3, improper sampling procedures on an LPG pipeline killed one worker and injured another from freezing at Dayton, Ohio.

1973 – In the summer, a pipeline ruptured in Diamond, Louisiana. The escaping gas fumes were ignited by a lawnmower, killing 2 people.

**1973 – On June 27, a pipeline failed near Findlay, Ohio, spill about 150,000 US gallons (570,000 L) of jet aviation fuel into the Ottawa Creek. A failed gasket caused the spill.

1973 – On October 18, a crude oil pipeline ruptured in Los Angeles, California. Crude flowed along several streets for a time.

***1973 – On December 4, a pipeline break releases 31,000 barrels (4,900 m3) of oil near Argyle, Minnesota.

1973 – On December 6, a pump station on an ammonia pipeline near Conway, Kansas, was started against a closed valve, and the pipeline failed in a previously damaged section. Two persons who drove through the ammonia vapors were hospitalized; several rural residents were evacuated from the area; and 89,796 US gallons (339,910 L) of anhydrous ammonia escaped.

1974 – On August 13, an ammonia pipeline failed near Hutchinson, Kansas after a pump station was started against a closed valve. 3 police officers were treated for ammonia inhalation; approximately 200 persons were evacuated from the area of the vapors; trees, lawns, shrubbery, and crops were burned; and an estimated 11,000 fish were killed.

1974 – On December 1, a crew repairing a leaking crude oil pipeline near Abilene, Texas, were overcome by sour crude oil fumes. Six of the repair crew died. The leak was cause by improper welding.

1975 – On January 17, a crude oil pipeline at Lima, Ohio ruptured after a valve was accidentally closed against a pumping pipeline. The spraying crude oil ignited, killing a Terminal Operator.

**1975 – In March, a leak was discovered in a 14 inch diameter petroleum products pipeline in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. Plantation Pipeline repaired the pipeline immediately, and began efforts to recover the spilled petroleum. From that time through June 1983, approximately 2,022 barrels of spilled petroleum products were recovered from standpipes at the leak site. Remediation efforts stopped in October 1984. Later tests raised questions on the possibility of not all of the spill products were recovered.

1975 – On March 26, a 12 inch diameter crude oil pipeline ruptured near Harwood, Missouri. Heavy rain slowed the cleanup.

1975 – On May 12, a natural gas liquids (NGL) pipeline ruptured due to previous mechanical damage at Devers, Texas. 4 people were killed in a following vapor cloud fire. The pipeline had been damaged when a valve was installed on the pipeline.

**1975 – On August 2, an LPG pipeline ruptured near Romulus, Michigan, due to previous mechanical damage to the pipeline, and over pressurization from operator error, caused by closing a valve against a pumping pipeline, at a storage facility. Nine people were injured in the following vapor cloud fire. Flames 500 feet (150 m) high engulfed a 600-foot (180 m)-diameter area, destroyed four houses and damaged three others, burned 12 vehicles, and consumed 2,389 barrels (379.8 m3) of propane.

***1976 – On February 25, an LPG/NGL pipeline ruptured near Whitharral, Texas, leading to vapor cloud fire that killed one, severely burning 4 others who later died, destroyed two homes, and burned an area about 400 yards wide. Electrical resistance weld (ERW) seam failure is suspected for the failure. From January 1968 to the date of the Whitharral accident, 14 longitudinal pipe seam failures had occurred on that pipeline system, which resulted in 6 other fatalities, and the escape of over 60,000 barrels (9,500 m3) of LPG.

1976 – On June 16, a front loader hit an 8 inch petroleum products pipeline in Los Angeles, California, during a road widening project along Venice Boulevard. 9 people were killed, a plastic factory was destroyed, and other serious property damage occurred.

1977 – On July 8, an explosion at Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. Pump Station No. 8 kills one worker, injures 5 others, and destroys the pump station. A US House of Representatives Committee later announced the cause was workers not following the proper procedures, causing crude oil to flow into a pump under repair at the time.

**1977 – On July 20, the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline was shut down for the 4th time in a month, when it was hit in a valve by a front loader. More than 40,000 US gallons (150,000 L) of crude oil was spilled.

1977 – On July 20, a 12 inch diameter propane pipeline ruptured near Ruff Creek, in Greene County, Pennsylvania, from stress corrosion cracking. The resulting propane vapor cloud ignited when a truck driven into the cloud stalled, then created a spark when it was restarted. Subsidence of underground coal mines in the area may have hastened the failure.

1977 – In August, a car drove through the leaking liquid from a petroleum pipeline in Lakewood, California. The pooled liquid appeared to be mud, but it exploded and burned, injuring a woman in the car.

1977 – On August 15, crude oil spilled at Alyeska Pipeline Pump Station No. 9. There was no fire, but a fire or explosion at that station could have shut down that pipeline, since Pump Station No. 8 was out of service from the previous month’s accident there. This was the seventh accident on this pipeline since the start up of the Alaska pipeline on June 20, 1977. The NTSB released three recommendations on September 9, 1977, to correct certain design and operating deficiencies in the pump rooms of each station of the Alyeska system.

**1977 – On September 10, a pipeline rupture spilled 69,000 US gallons (260,000 L) of gasoline into a creek in Toledo, Ohio. Corrosion of the pipeline caused the failure.

1978 – On February 15, a portion of the Alyeska Pipeline east of Fairbanks, Alaska was ruptured by an explosive device. Crude oil spilled in a 600-foot (180 m) diameter spot.

1978 – On August 4, an LPG pipeline at Donnellson, Iowa, ruptured from past mechanical damage and improper lowering for road improvements. The vapor cloud ignited several minutes after the rupture. Three people were killed and 2 others severely burned.

*1978 – On August 30, about 7,600 US gallons (29,000 L) of gasoline were spilled in Hampton, Pennsylvania . Workers boring for a sewer line had hit the fuel pipeline. Later, the 2 construction firms responsible were fined only $500 each.

1978 – On November 8, a crude oil pipeline leaks into the Farmington Bay Waterfowl Management Area west of Farmington, Utah. About 42,000 US gallons (160,000 L) of crude were spilled. The rupture was caused bypumping against a valve that had been closed for earlier pipeline maintenance.

*1985 – On April 5, a lightning caused computer malfunction resulted in a pipeline rupture that sent thousands of gallons of gasoline into the Yellow Leaf Creek in Alabama.

*1985 – On June 19, workers on the extension of the North Dallas Tollway ruptured a 12 inch gasoline pipeline, causing a massive gasoline spill along a creek bed north of Dallas, Texas. The gasoline later ignited. One person had moderate injuries, several office buildings were damaged by fire, and some automobiles were damaged.

*1985 – On July 23, in a rural area about 8 miles (13 km) south of Kaycee, Wyoming, a girth weld cracked during a pipeline re-coating project on a 23-year-old, 8-inch-diameter pipeline. The cracked girth weldallowed the release, atomization, and ignition of aircraft turbine fuel under 430 pounds pressure, killing one person, burning six persons, destroying construction equipment.

**1985 – On August 2, a gasoline leak of up to 42,000 US gallons (160,000 L) from a ruptured 10 inch pipeline ignited in Indianapolis, Indiana, causing a 200-foot (61 m) high fireball that killed three people, and injured 3 others working to clean up the spill along a creek.

**1985 – On September 23, a 12 inch diameter gasoline pipeline fitting was hit by a backhoe, and sprayed about 35,000 US gallons (130,000 L) of gasoline 45 feet (14 m) into the air in Staten Island, New York. There were evacuations, but no fire.

1986 – On February 22, an 8 inch high-pressure petroleum pipeline ruptures in Muskegon County, Michigan, spilling gasoline into creeks.

*1986 – On June 28, a pipeline ruptured and spilled diesel fuel into Trail Creek in Michigan City, Indiana. The fuel later ignited. Thousands of fish were killed.

*1986 – On July 8, early, a Williams petroleum products pipeline ruptured in Mounds View, Minnesota.Gasoline at 1,434 psi sprayed a residential area around 4:20 am local time, then ignited. A woman and her 7 year old daughter suffered fatal burns, at least two others were injured, and many homes damaged or destroyed. Confusion by the pipeline company led to a delay in shutting down the pipelineElectrical resistance welded (ERW) seam failure caused the rupture. During a hydrostatic test of this pipeline following the accident, 7 ERW seams failed. Studies of available data by OPS staff in early 1988 showed that ERW seams have been involved in 145 service failures in both hazardous liquid and natural gas pipelines since 1970 to early 1988, and that of these failures, all but 2 occurred on pipe manufactured prior to 1970.

1986 – On September 4, between 800 and 1200 residents were evacuated in East Chicago, Indiana after a gasoline tank at a pipeline Terminal ruptured. 28 people were overcome by gasoline fumes. There was no fire.

1986 – In September, petroleum products pipeline failed near Billings, Montana, causing the evacuation of nearby businesses. There was no fire.

1986 – On September 8, a pipeline failed under the Red River near Gainesville, Texas. Fumes from the pipeline sent 14 to hospitals for treatment.

*1986 – On December 25, a pipeline ruptures and spills furnace oil into the Des Plaines River near Chicago, Illinois. About 1,000 US gallons (3,800 L) of furnace oil was spilled. Corrosion seemed to cause the pipeline failure.

1987 – On March 12, petroleum pipeline ruptured and burned near Corsicana, Texas, forcing the closure of an Interstate highway, and cause some evacuations.

1987 – On March 26, work crew burning the remains of a house near Ladysmith, Virginia ruptured a nearby petroleum products pipeline with a bulldozer, igniting diesel fuel from the line. 2 of the worker were injured.

*1987 – On April 4, an LPG pipeline exploded at a Terminal in Iowa City, Iowa. Due to the fire spreading to a pipeline for nearby underground gas storage, residents within a 2 1/2 mile radius of the Terminal were evacuated for a time. The fire burned until April 20. The cause was an ERW seam failure in a pipeline. During a hydrostatic test of that pipeline, 20 more pipeline segment seams failed.

*1987 – On June 11, a “rock ripper” at a construction site punctured a 32 inch petroleum products pipeline in Centreville, Virginia. Gasoline sprayed from the rupture, but there was no fire. More than 15,500 US gallons (59,000 L) of gasoline were released. Thirteen emergency response personnel suffered from exposure to the gasoline fumes.

1987 – On July 23, a construction crew working on an Interstate 90 project east of Coeur d’Alene, Idaho struck the 10 inch diameter Yellowstone Pipeline, causing a leaking that sprayed out over 200 barrels (32 m3) of gasoline. The pipeline was supposed to have 30 inches of soil cover, but had only 2 inches of cover. There was no fire.

***1988 – On February 8, an offshore pipeline near Galveston, Texas, that may have been damaged by an anchor, ruptures, spilling about 15,576 barrels (2,476.4 m3) of crude oil into the Gulf.

**1988 – On April 9, a 20 inch diameter crude oil pipeline fails in a Peoria County, Illinois subdivision. About 200,000 US gallons (760,000 L) of crude were spilled, contaminating 2 private lakes.

1988 – On July 22, a pair of MAPCO LPG/NGL pipelines failed in an explosion south of Topeka, Kansas. 200 nearby residents had to be evacuated, and there was serious damage to US Route 75 nearby from the explosion & following fire. An ERW seam selective corrosion failure in one of the pipelines caused the failure.

**1988 – On September 10, a crude oil pipeline ruptured, spilling about 132,000 gallons of crude oil in Encino, California. The crude flowed into storm drains, and then into the Los Angeles River. Electrical interference to Cathodic protection from other pipelines was suspected to have cause the corrosion that caused the failure. The crude oil pipeline was on top of a steel water pipeline, which would directly interfere with Cathodic protection efforts.

**1988 – In November, corrosion of a 14-inch underground pipeline owned and operated by the Shell Oil Company, a predecessor of Shell Pipeline Corporation (Shell), resulted in the release of an estimated 120,000 US gallons (450,000 L) of gasoline. A pool of gasoline about 450 feet (140 m) by 50 feet (15 m) appeared among fields of corn and soybeans. The site of the release was in Limestone Township in Kankakee County, about 4 miles (6.4 km) west of Kankakee, Illinois. Approximately 2,100 people live within a 1-mile (1.6 km) radius of the November 1988 release point.

**1988 – On December 1, Koch Industries and Ashland Oil subsidiary 16 inch diameter crude oil pipeline failed near Dellwood, Minnesota, spilling about 200,000 US gallons (760,000 L) of crude on a farm. Snow complicated the cleanup. The leak occurred late December 1, but was not discovered until early December 2. An ERW seam fatigue crack caused the failure.

***1988 – On December 24, a 22 inch diameter crude oil pipeline ruptures near Vienna, Missouri, spilling more than 860,000 US gallons (3,300,000 L) of crude oil into the Gasconade River. A pipeline worker in Oklahoma failed to notice the pipeline’s plummeting pressure gauges for at least two hours. An ERW seam defect in the pipe was determined to be the cause of the failure.

***1989 – On January 24, crude oil pipeline rupture in Winkler County, Texas, spills over 23,000 barrels (3,700 m3) of oil. 6 acres (24,000 m2) of land were covered in oil, and groundwater was contaminated.

1989 – On May 25, a petroleum products pipeline failed, after the San Bernardino train disaster, California.Damage from a train derailment cleanup caused a CalNev petroleum products pipeline to rupture, spraying nearby homes with gasoline. Three were killed, 31 were injured, and 15 homes were damaged or destroyed in following fire.

*1989 – On June 2, a crude oil gathering pipeline ruptures near Craig, Colorado, spilling 10,000 US gallons (38,000 L) of crude into the Yampa River. Federal maintenance oversight of gathering pipelines ended in 1985.

**1989 – On December 18, a Colonial Pipeline petroleum pipeline failed near Locust Grove, Virginia. 212,000 US gallons (800,000 L) of kerosene spilled into the Rapidan and Rappahannock Rivers. On New Year’s Eve, following a rapid thaw and heavy rains, containment dams broke and kerosene flowed downstream toward Fredericksburg, Virginia. Fish and game were killed, the City’s water supply was cut off, and drinking water had to be hauled from Stafford County for seven days. This was the seventh major leak from Colonial Pipeline in Virginia since 1973.

***1990 – On January 2, an Exxon underwater pipeline located at the mouth of Morse Creek discharged approximately 13,500 barrels (2,150 m3) of No. 2 heating oil into the Arthur Kill waterway between New Jersey and Staten Island, New York.

**1990 – on March 30, a 10-inch-diameter pipeline, ruptured from overstress due to a landslide in Freeport, Pennsylvania, resulting in the release of approximately 1,300 barrels (210 m3) of mixed petroleum products. Spilled petroleum products entered Knapp’s Run, a small creek emptying into the Allegheny River and, eventually, the Ohio River. The product release resulted in extensive ground and water pollution and interrupted the use of the Allegheny River as a water supply for several communities. Damage to the pipeline and environmental cleanup and restoration costs exceeded $12 million.

****1990 – On May 6, a spool on a pipeline ruptured off of the Louisiana coast. 13,600 barrels (2,160 m3) of crude oil were estimated to have spilled.

**1990 – On August 29, a private contractor laying conduit for underground power lines ruptured a pipeline that fouled a Western Branch creek with diesel fuel in Chesapeake, Virginia. Over 67,000 US gallons (250,000 L) of fuel were spilled.

**1990 – On November 5, a crude oil pipeline ruptures near Ethel, Missouri, fouling over 35 miles (56 km) of the Chariton River. 44,000 to 66,000 US gallons (250,000 L) of crude were spilled.

1990 – In late November, at least 3 leaks spilling over a thousand gallons of oil were found in a pipeline in Cerritos, California, it was announced on November 23. One of the failed section of pipeline was 6 to 7 years old.

*1991 – On January 31, a Mobil Company crude oil pipeline ruptured near Valencia, California, spilling up to 75,000 gallons of crude oil. The same day, a report was released showing that particular pipeline had a 99.8% chance of a leak in the next 5 years.

****1991 – On March 2, a Lakehead (now Enbridge) crude oil pipeline near Grand Rapids, Minnesota ruptured on March 2. More than 40,000 barrels of crude went into the Prairie River. About 4 million US gallons (15,000 m3) of oil had spilled from that pipeline from the early 1970s to 1991, per Minnesota records. A resident in the area noticed the smell of oil and alerted the local fire department. Approximately 300 people living in homes near the site were evacuated for safety, but were allowed to return to their homes later in the night.

**1991 – On June 29, over 60,000 US gallons (230,000 L) of fuel oil and gasoline leaked from a 10 inch diameter Koch Industries pipeline in Carson, Wisconsin from a 3 inch crack. A previous significant leak had occurred on this pipeline in that area the year before. Local officials urged Koch to upgrade it’s leak monitoring equipment. Koch later replaced 12 miles (19 km) of that pipeline in the area.

**1991 – On September 5, about 42,000 US gallons (160,000 L) of crude oil spilled from a broken pipeline at a barge facility at High Island, Texas.

***1991 – On December 19, a 36-inch-diameter Colonial Pipeline ruptured from prior excavation damageabout 2.8 miles (4.5 km) downstream of the pipeline’s Simpsonville, South Carolina, pump station. The rupture allowed more than 500,000 US gallons (1,900,000 L) of diesel fuel to flow into Durbin Creek, causing environmental damage that affected 26 miles (42 km) of waterways, including the Enoree River, which flows through Sumter National Forest. The spill also forced Clinton and Whitmire, South Carolina, to use alternative water supplies.

**1992 – In January, a pipeline offshore of Grand Island, Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico leaked thousands of gallons of crude oil.

1992 – On April 7, a salt dome cavern used to store LPG & similar products was overfilled, leading to an uncontrolled release of highly volatile liquids (HVLs) from a salt dome storage cavern near Brenham, Texas, formed a large, heavier-than-air gas cloud that later exploded. Three people died from injuries sustained either from the blast or in the following fire. An additional 21 people were treated for injuries at area hospitals. Damage from the accident exceeded $9 million.

1993 – On March 28, a pressurized 36-inch-diameter (910 mm) petroleum product pipeline owned and operated by Colonial Pipeline Company ruptured near Hemdon, Virginia. The rupture created a geyser which sprayed diesel fuel over 75 feet (23 m) into the air, coating overhead powerlines and adjacent trees, and misting adjacent Virginia Electric Power Company buildings. The diesel fuel spewed from the rupture into an adjacent storm water management pond and flowed overland and through a network of storm sewer pipes before reaching Sugarland Run Creek, a tributary of the Potomac River. The cause was latent third party damage.

**1993 – On April 6, a crude oil pipeline ruptured & spill up to 125,000 gallons of crude oil into a stream bed in Kern County, California, forcing a temporary closure of the nearby Golden State Freeway.

**1993 – On July 26, a 6-inch pipeline in Nebraska was exposed by scour in a creek bed and its banks, and was struck by flood debris, which caused it to rupture. The rupture resulted in the release of 2,203 barrels (350.2 m3) of anhydrous ammonia.

1993 – On August 20, an ammonia pipeline failed in Sperry, Oklahoma. 80 homes in the area were evacuated. Several people were treated for ammonia inhalation injuries.

1993 – On November 3, Amoco Pipeline was fined $12,500 for a 1971 pipeline leak that contaminated a drinking well and caused other pollution problems for people living near Garfield, Minnesota.

*1993 – On December 2, a 10 inch diameter Conoco pipeline ruptured, spilling 8,400 US gallons (32,000 L) of gasoline into a creek in Washington, Missouri.

**1994 – In January, a pipeline ruptures, dumping almost 162,500 US gallons (615,000 L) of oil in a river, the Marais des Cygnes River in Osawatomie, Kansas. In addition to a $804,700 fine, BP Amoco agreed to spend at least $145,300 on a supplemental environmental project involving reconstruction improvements to Osawatomie’s water intake.

1994 – On February 1, the third explosion in 7 years hit a LPG/NGL pipeline Terminal in Iowa City, Iowa. 11 workers at the Terminal escaped injury, and 6 families within 1 1/2 miles of the Terminal were evacuated. The 2 previous explosions were in 1987 and 1989.

**1994 – On early September 22, residents near O’Fallon, Missouri detected a petroleum smell. The local Fire Department was called several hours later, and noticed an oily mist in the area, and found a leaking pipeline. The owner of the 10 inch diameter petroleum products later claimed the spill volume was less than 1,000 US gallons (3,800 L), but later calculations and batch volume measurements indicate a spill of 29,000 to 37,000 US gallons (140,000 L). EPA officials later admit someone lied about the spill volume. Over the next 10 years, 8 attempts at remediation were made, before the O’Day Creek was cleaned of all petroleum products.

**1994 – On October 8, a lightning strike shut a valve on a crude oil pipeline, while the oil was flowing, triggering a pressure buildup that ripped a 50-square-inch hole in a section of the pipe that was already weakened by corrosion. Pipeline employees — unaware of the rupture in the pipe — turned on the pumps after the pipeline shut down automatically, sending oil pouring into the creek for about an hour. The spill created a 12-mile (19 km)-long slick on Nueces and Corpus Christi bays along the Texas Gulf Coast. Nearly seven years later, delicate coastal marshes that serve as a nursery for shrimp, flounder, crabs and other marine life have not fully recovered. The estimated spill size was 2,151 barrels (342.0 m3), but that was debated as being too small a size. The pipeline eventually agreed to pay more than $45 million in damages.

***1994 Record high flooding along the San Jacinto River in Texas lead to the failure of 8 pipelines crossing that river. Due to the flooding many other pipelines were also undermined. More than 35,000 barrels (5,600 m3) of petroleum and petroleum products were released into the river. Ignition of the released products resulted in 547 people receiving (mostly minor) burn and inhalation injuries. Spill response costs exceeded $7 million, and estimated property damage losses were about $16 million.

**1994 – On November 29, a leak of at least 20,000 US gallons (76,000 L) of diesel fuel was discovered on a Koch Industries pipeline near Plover, Wisconsin. The leak brought this pipeline’s total spill volume to 100,000 US gallons (380,000 L) on a 91 miles (146 km) pipeline section through several years.

***1995 – Since starting operations in 1954 until 1995, Yellowstone Pipeline had 71 leaks along the Flathead Indian Reservation in Montana, spilling 3,500,000 US gallons (13,000,000 L) of petroleum products. Eventually, the Flathead refused to sign a new lease with Yellowstone.

1995 – On December 2, 3 contractors were killed, and another injured, when a vacuum used to control flammable fumes accidentally reversed during welding at a pipeline facility near McCamey, Texas.

1996 – On February 5, a pipeline ruptured and spilled diesel fuel into a creek in Fairview Heights, Missouri.

***1996 – On May 23, a 20 inch diameter pipeline ruptured at a location near Gramercy, Louisiana. The ruptured pipeline ultimately released about 475,000 US gallons (1,800,000 L) of gasoline into a common pipeline right-of-way and marsh land. Gasoline also entered the Blind River, causing environmental damage and killing fish, wildlife, and vegetation in the area. The pipeline controller did not at first recognize the pipeline had failed, and continued to ignore alarms from the pipeline SCADA system.

***1996 – On June 26, a 36 inch diameter Colonial Pipeline ruptured at the Reedy River, near Fork Shoals, South Carolina. The ruptured pipeline released about 957,600 US gallons (3,625,000 L) of fuel oil into the Reedy River and surrounding areas. The spill polluted a 34-mile (55 km) stretch of the Reedy River, causing significant environmental damage. Floating oil extended about 23 miles (37 km) down the river. Approximately 35,000 fish were killed, along with other aquatic organisms and wildlife. The estimated cost to Colonial Pipeline for cleanup and settlement with the State of South Carolina was $20.5 million. No one was injured in the accident. The pipeline was operating at reduced pressure due to known corrosion issues, but pipeline operator confusion led to an accidental return to normal pressure in that pipeline section, causing the rupture.

***1996 – On August 4, 420,000 US gallons (1,600,000 L) of unspecified petroleum product spilled from a Lakehead pipe near Donaldson, Minnesota.

1996 – On November 5, a pipeline in Murfreesboro, Tennessee was undergoing maintenance. The pipeline was returned to service, but a valve on that pipeline was accidentally left closed from the maintenance, causing pressure to rupture the pipeline.

**1997 – On May 9, a leak was detected on a 12 inch diameter pipeline near Mount Morris, Illinois on May 9. Between 125,000 and 130,000 US gallons (490,000 L) of gasoline were spilled. A month later, gasoline was till being extracted from the area.

*1997 – On May 30, Colonial Pipeline spilled approximately 18,900 US gallons (72,000 L) of gasoline, some of which entered an unnamed creek and its adjoining shoreline in the Bear Creek watershed near Athens, Georgia. During the spill, a vapor cloud of gasoline formed, causing several Colonial employees to flee for safety. This spill resulted from a calculation error related to a regular procedure. No one checked the calculations, nor did Colonial have a procedure in place to check such calculations.

**1997 – In August, residents in Vacaville, California noticed petroleum fumes, but a leaking pipeline was not found until September 10. A hairline crack from the pipe’s manufacturing was the cause, and 20,000 to 60,000 US gallons (230,000 L) of petroleum products had leaked by the time the source was found.

***1997 Over a period of years, more than 420,000 US gallons (1,600,000 L) of gasoline spilled from small leaks in Colonial’s pipeline near Darling Creek in St. Helena Parish, Louisiana, before Colonial finally discovered the leak in December 1997. As of September 1999, a plume of gasoline, including leaded gasoline, extended over approximately 14 acres (57,000 m2) on the groundwater surface, more than 60 acres (240,000 m2) of groundwater had been contaminated, and some of the gasoline had entered Darling Creek.

*1998 – On January 23, at least 800 barrels (130 m3) of light crude oil was spilled into the Gulf of Mexico 50 miles (80 km) south of Galveston, Texas by a leaking pipeline.

**1998 – A rupture in a pipeline in a landfill at Sandy Springs, Georgia, discovered on March 30, resulted in the release of more than 30,000 US gallons (110,000 L) of gasoline. When the pipe was excavated, it was found to be buckled and cracked. The Safety Board found that the pipeline ruptured because of settlement of soil and trash underneath the pipeline.

***1998 – On September22, a 8,810 barrels (1,401 m3) crude oil spill from a Lakehead pipeline near Plummer, Minnesota was caused by an excavator hitting that pipeline.

**1999 – On February 9, a pipeline rupture in Knoxville, Tennessee, and released over 53,000 US gallons (200,000 L) of diesel fuel into the Tennessee River. A brittle-like crack was found on the pipe in an area of coating failure. The NTSB expressed concern that the material’s toughness had a role in this rupture. Two days before the rupture, an in-line inspection device was run through the pipe segment, with no anomalies in the rupture area reported. Contributing to the severity of the accident was Colonial Pipeline Company’s failure to determine from the SCADA system that a leak had occurred, with the result that the pipeline controller started and restarted the pipeline, increasing the amount of diesel fuel that was released.

*1999 – On June 10, a pipeline in a Bellingham, Washington park ruptured and leaked gasoline, and later vapor from the leak exploded and killed two 10 year old boys and an 18 year old man. Issues causing the rupture were found to be previous pipe damage by excavation, an incorrectly set up pressure relief valve, unexpected repeated remote valve closure, and new software tests on the live controlling computer.

2000 – On January 10, approximately 100 barrels of jet fuel were discharged from a portion of the Plantation Pipeline in Newington, Virginia, some of which entered into Accotink Creek and its adjoining shorelines. The failure resulted from a failed gasket on an interface detector.

***2000 – On January 27, in Winchester, Kentucky, a pipeline accident released about 490,000 US gallons (1,900,000 L) of crude oil. NTSB investigators found a dent on the bottom of the pipe in the rupture area. Marathon-Ashland spent about $7.1 million in response to the accident.

**2000 – On February 5, a pipeline failed and spilled over 192,000 US gallons (730,000 L) of crude oil in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Pennsylvania. The source of the spill was a break in a miter bend in the pipe, which was estimated to be at least 50 years old.

***2000 – On March 9, a petroleum pipeline failure in Greenville, Texas. A 28-inch-diameter pipeline ruptured and released 13,436 barrels (2,136.2 m3) of gasoline. The released gasoline flowed a few hundred feet across the surrounding terrain and into a dry creek bed, which was a tributary to East Caddo Creek. From the tributary, the gasoline flowed downstream into East Caddo Creek. The banks of the tributary and creek contained the escaping gasoline as it flowed away from the ruptured pipe. The probable cause of the pipeline failure was corrosion-fatigue cracking that initiated at the edge of the longitudinal seam weld at a likely preexisting weld defect. Contributing to the failure was the loss of pipe coating integrity.

**2000 – On April 7, a pipeline released fuel oil near Chalk Point, Maryland. The Piney Point Oil Pipeline system, which was owned by the Potomac Electric Power Company (Pepco), experienced a pipe failure at the Chalk Point Generating Station in southeastern Prince George’s County, Maryland. The release was not discovered and addressed by the contract operating company, Support Terminal Services, Inc., until the late afternoon. Approximately 140,400 US gallons (531,000 L) of fuel oil were released into the surrounding wetlands and Swanson Creek and, subsequently, the Patuxent River as a result of the accident. No injuries were caused by the accident, which cost approximately $71 million for environmental response and clean-up operations.

**2000 On June 7, a stopple fitting weld failed on a pipeline, causing a rupture releasing 75,000 US gallons (280,000 L) of gasoline into the environment, and causing the evacuation of more than 500 homes in Blackman Charter Township, Michigan. The failure caused the shutdown of 30% of Michigan’s gasoline supplies for nine days, contaminated a creek which flows into the Grand River, and a railroad track near the failure site was shut down for a week. Later tests found 715 anomalies in this pipeline.

2000 – September 8 – For the second time in 24 hours, a state contractor building a noise wall along the I-475 in Toledo, Ohio struck an underground pipeline, and for a second time the contractor blamed faulty pipeline mapping for the accident. In this incident, the pipe was a six-inch gas pipeline. The crew was digging a hole with an auger for a noise-wall support on September 8, when it hit the underground pipe less than 500 meters from the previous day’s incident.

2000 – On September 7, a Bulldozer ruptured a 12 inch diameter NGL pipeline on Rt. 36, south of Abilene, Texas. An Abilene police detective, with 21 years of service, was severely burned and later died. Nearby, a woman saved herself by going underwater in her swimming pool. Her house was destroyed by the explosion & fire. The owner of the pipeline, ExxonMobil, was later fined by the Texas Railroad Commission for thepipeline not being marked.

**2000 – On November 3, a front end loader punctured an 8 inch diameter pipeline carrying diesel fuel in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Diesel fuel sprayed 40 feet (12 m) into the air. The fuel flowed for over 2 hours before stopping, and contaminating the area with more than 40,000 US gallons (150,000 L) of diesel fuel.

***2001 – On April 1, a Dome Pipeline in North Dakota carrying gasoline ruptured and burst into flames a few miles west of Bottineau, North Dakota. An estimated 1.1 million US gallons (4,200 m3) of gasoline burned before the pipeline could be shut down. The company attributed the break to damage by an “outside force,” which A Bottineau County Sheriff said appeared to be frost that melted at uneven rates, twisting and breaking the pipeline.

2001 – On July 24, a pipeline ruptures and spreads burning gasoline near Manheim, Pennsylvania.

**2001 – On August 17, an Oklahoma crude oil pipeline ruptured after being struck by a machine cleaning roadside ditches, sending oil 30 feet (9.1 m) into the air and damaging nearby cotton crops with up to 150,000 US gallons (570,000 L) spilled.

**2001 – On December 14, an anhydrous ammonia spill near Algona, Iowa killed nearly 1.3 million fish – the largest fish kill on that state’s record to date, Iowa state officials said. More than 58,000 US gallons (220,000 L) of anhydrous ammonia over a 9 hour period spilled from a broken pipeline owned by Koch Industries Inc. into Lotts Creek and the Des Moines River killing minnows, bass and other game fish. Koch Pipeline, a Texas company that owns the 8-inch pipeline, was doing maintenance work on a valve on the pipeline. Officials said the plume drifted over a six-mile (10 km) area causing officials to evacuate residents in its path.

2002 – On or about March 13, approximately 20 barrels of oil or jet fuel were discharged from a portion of the Plantation Pipeline in Alexandria, Virginia, some of which entered into an unnamed tributary of Hooff Run and its adjoining shorelines. The pipeline failure appears to have resulted from a hole in the pipeline caused by high-voltage arcing between the pipeline and a utility pole anchor.

**2002 – On April 6, a BP-Amoco pipeline ruptured and released about 100,000 US gallons (380,000 L) of oil into a coastal area known as Little Lake in Louisiana.

2002 – On June 20, PHMSA ordered Columbia Gas Transmission Company to do extensive repair to one of their gas transmission pipelines in the states of Pennsylvania & New York after finding extensive wall thin on sections of that pipeline caused by external corrosion. Approximately 800 anomalies with wall thickness losses of greater than 65 percent were found during a smart pig examination, with 76 of the found anomalies having a wall thickness loss of greater than 80 percent. Many of the affected sections of pipe were older sections lacking coating, which is known to reduce external corrosion on pipelines.

*2002 – On July 4, a rupture of an Enbridge Pipeline and release of crude oil near Cohasset, Minnesota. The pipeline ruptured in a marsh near Cohasset, in Itasca County, spilling 6,000 barrels (950 m3) of crude oil. In an attempt to keep the oil from contaminating the Mississippi River, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources set a controlled burn that lasted for 1 day and created a smoke plume about one mile (1.6 km) high and five miles (8 km) long. The pipe failed due to cracking caused by train shipping induced cracking of the pipe being delivered.

**2002 – On September 20, Friday, at approximately 22:10, a gasoline leak from an 8-inch pipeline operated by Cenex Pipeline (terminal) was discovered near Glendive, Montana. The release of approximately 1,000 barrels (160 m3) of unleaded gasoline flowed into Seven Mile Creek, and then downstream into to its confluence with the Yellowstone River. Several trenches was constructed near the rupture pipe for product collection points. As of September 25, 2002, a vacuum truck had recovered approximately 21,000 US gallons (79,000 L) of gasoline [and water] from the boomed locations and trenches.

**2003 – On January 24, an Enbridge crude oil pipeline ruptures at a terminal in Douglas County, Wisconsin on January 24. Some of the crude oil flowed into the Nemadji River. Over 100,000 US gallons (380,000 L) were spilled.

*2003 – On or about February 22, approximately 788 barrels of gasoline were discharged from a portion of Plantation Pipeline in Hull, Georgia, some of which entered into an unnamed tributary of East Sandy Creek and its adjoining shorelines. The spill resulted from a failed gasket on a buried block valve.

2003 – On May 8, an 8 inch diameter LPG pipeline failed near Lebanon, Ohio. About 80 homes and one school in the area were evacuated. There was no fire or injuries.

*2003 – On July 30, A Kinder Morgan pipeline in Tucson, Arizona ruptured and spewed 10,000 to 19,000 US gallons (72,000 L) of gasoline on five houses under construction, flooding nearby streets. The resulting pipeline closure caused major gas shortages in the state. The U.S. Office of Pipeline Safety had warned carriers previously that pipe of the type that Kinder Morgan had in Arizona had manufacturing defects that could grow over time. A hydrostatic test that was performed on this pipeline after repairs failed 40 feet (12 m) from the first failure.

**2004 – On April 28, a petroleum pipeline owned and operated by Kinder Morgan Energy Partners ruptured, and spilled an estimated 1,500 -1,600 barrels (250 m3) of diesel fuel into marshes adjacent to Suisun Bay in Northern California. The line was corroded. The company failed to notify California authorities about the spill for 18 hours, a failure for which it was later cited.

*2004 – On May 23, a leak in a sampling tube on a pipeline in Renton, Washington spilled several thousand gallons of gasoline, which ignited.

2004 – On September 26, a vandal started up a trackhoe at a construction site in New Caney, Texas, and dug into a propylene pipeline. The escaping propylene ignited, causing nearby residents to evacuate. There were no injuries reported.

**2004 – On September 28, a pipeline fails in Hughes County, Oklahoma, spilling an estimated 1,500 barrels (240 m3) of diesel fuel.

**2004 – On October 27, an anhydrous ammonia pipeline ruptured near Kingman, Kansas, and released approximately 4,858 barrels (772.4 m3) of anhydrous ammonia. Nobody was killed or injured due to the release. The anhydrous ammonia leaked into a creek and killed more than 25,000 fish including some from threatened species. The pipeline had previous damage to it. The pipeline controller had misinterpreted the leak as other problems with the system operation, causing the leak to go on longer. As a result of this, and another ammonia pipeline leak the month before, the pipeline owner and it’s 2 operating companies were later fined $3.65 million.

**2004 – On November 9, in Walnut Creek, California, a petroleum pipeline carrying gasoline to San Jose, California, owned and operated by Kinder Morgan Energy Partners (KMEP) was struck by a backhoe used by Mountain Cascade Inc. (MC), a contractor operating in the construction of a water pipeline for the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). A massive gasoline spill was subsequently ignited, resulting in an explosive fireball that caused the deaths, by burns, of four workers and one supervisor and the severe injury of five others. A Kinder Morgan worker had misread an as built map, and had incorrectly marked the pipeline’s route before the accident.

**2004 – On November 21, a 14 inch petroleum products pipeline sprung a leak that was transporting gasoline at the time of the release. The Calnev Pipeline, owned and operated by the California-Nevada Pipeline Company, a subsidiary of Kinder-Morgan Energy Partners, is the main source of petroleum fuel products for Las Vegas, Nevada. An 80-foot (24 m) geyser of gasoline was discovered on the next morning, after numerous complaints of a strong gasoline odor along Interstate 15 in northern San Bernardino County, CA.

*2004 – On December 24, as much as 5,000 gallons of crude oil spilled on from a ConocoPhillips pipeline south of Laurel, Montana near the Yellowstone River. Hydrogen sulfide gas from the oil could have posed a major danger, but the wind helped immensely to dissipate the gas.

***2005 – In January, a Mid-Valley owned and Sunoco operated pipeline ruptured, spilling 260,000 US gallons (980,000 L) of oil into the Kentucky and Ohio rivers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency fined the companies $2.5 million for the spill.

*2005 – On February 1, an ExxonMobil underground gasoline pipeline fire forced 43 families from their homes near Allentown, Pennsylvania. The pipeline burned for over 72 hours. There were no reported injuries.

2005 – On April 1, a petroleum products pipeline is found leaking gasoline near Truckee, California. Gasoline spread into Donner Creek.

*2005 – In May, a pipeline failed in Bryan County, Oklahoma, spilling 860 barrels (137 m3) of crude oil.

**2005 – On May 28, a 12-inch (300 mm) Kinder Morgan Energy Partners pipeline ruptured in El Paso, Texas, releasing gasoline.

**2006 – On March 2, a surveillance crew discovered a crude oil spill near North Slope Borough, Alaska. The pipeline failure resulted in a release currently estimated at 5,000 barrels (790 m3) of processed crude oil, impacting the arctic tundra and covering approximately 2 acres (8,100 m2) of permafrost. The pipeline’s leak detection system was not effective in recognizing and identifying the failure. Failure to run cleaning pigs to remove internal corrosive build up. The failure caused crude oil price to spike though out the World.

*2006 – On March 23, a pipeline failed west of Toledo, Ohio, spilling about 200 barrels (32 m3) of unleaded gasoline. During the repair work, another smaller nearby leak was also found.

*2006 – On or about April 17, a Plantation Pipeline line experienced a failure in Henrico County, near Richmond, Virginia. The failure resulted in the release of an unknown quantity of jet fuel in a residential area. The jet fuel sprayed for approximately 14 minutes and the spray traveled the distance of approximately 200 feet (61 m). The jet fuel did not ignite.

**2006 – On June 27, a Koch Industries pipeline carrying crude oil failed near the town of Little Falls, Minnesota. The pipeline estimated that approximately 3,200 barrels (510 m3) of crude oil were released.

**2006 – On August 12, a petroleum pipeline failed in Romeoville, Illinois. About 59,000 US gallons (220,000 L) of product were lost. External corrosion was the cause, but there were no injuries.

*2006 – On October 12, a pipeline explosion occurred when a tugboat pushing two barges hit the pipeline Thursday in West Cote Blanche Bay, about two miles (3 km) from shore and 100 miles (160 km) southwest of New Orleans, Louisiana. 4 crew members were killed, and 2 were missing and later presumed dead.

2006 – On or about November 27, 2006, approximately 97 barrels of gasoline were discharged from a portion of Plantation’s Pipeline System in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, into Paw Creek and its adjoining shorelines. The leak resulted from a failed gasket on an above-ground block valve.

***2007 – On January 1, an Enbridge pipeline that runs from Superior, Wisconsin to near Whitewater, Wisconsin failed, resulting in a spill of ~50,000 US gallons (190,000 L) of crude oil onto farmland and into a drainage ditch. The same pipeline was struck by construction crews on February 2, 2007, in Rusk County, Wisconsin, spilling ~126,000 US gallons (480,000 L) of crude. Some of the oil filled a hole more than 20 feet (6.1 m) deep and was reported to have contaminated the local water table.

**2007 – February: A construction crew strikes an Enbridge pipeline in Rusk County, spilling 3,000 barrels (480 m3).

2007 – On March 29, 2007, near Yutan, Nebraska, a pipeline was hit by construction equipment. About 1,697 barrels of natural gasoline was lost.

**2007 – May 16: 63,000 US gallons (240,000 L) of gasoline spilled into an old stripping pit that covers a three-acre area in Coal Township. The Kerris and Helfrick company owns the property where the gas leak occurred, and the excavator, was working for the company when he accidentally ruptured the Sunoco Logistics 14-inch diameter petroleum pipeline. The gasoline was mostly absorbed into areas of soil, fill and coal strippings at the site.

2007 – On July 18 – 2007 New York City steam explosion.

**2007 – On November 27, an oil pipeline owned by Enbridge exploded in Clearbrook, Minnesota, during repairs, causing the deaths of two employees. DOT officials said that two Enbridge workers died in a crude oil explosion as they worked to make repairs on the former Lakehead system pipeline. Enbridge was cited for failing to safely and adequately perform maintenance and repair activities, clear the designated work area from possible sources of ignition, and hire properly trained and qualified workers.

*2008 – On January 5, a pipeline ruptured at a filet weld, leaking natural gasoline in Oologah, Oklahoma. 690 barrels of the gasoline were lost.

****2008 – On January 8, a pipeline split open near Denver City, Texas, spilling 1.3 million US gallons (4,900 m3) of crude oil. The pipeline company failed to detect and stop the leak for more than 24 hoursERW seam failure appears to be the cause.

****2008 – On July 28, the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Illinois ordered Apex Oil Company Inc., to clean up ground water and soil contamination, at an expected cost of at least $150 million. During the period 1967 through 1988, Apex Oil’s legal predecessor, Clark Oil and Refining Corp., released gasoline from leaking pipelines and other spills, that commingled with other responsible parties’ releases and resulted in the large plume of refined petroleum substances beneath Hartford, Illinois. Vapors from the underground plume of millions of gallons of leaked and spilled petroleum products have migrated into homes in the village, causing years of fires, explosions, and evacuations.

**2008 – On August 10, a 20 inch diameter crude oil pipeline ruptured near Golden Gate, Illinois. About 243,000 gallons of crude were spilled, with about 33,000 gallons being lost. The cause was listed as a pipe seam failure.

2008 – On August 29, a 24 inch gas transmission pipeline ruptured in Cooper County, Missouri. Corrosion had caused the pipeline to lose 75% of its wall thickness in the failure area.

**2008 – On September 23, a ruptured pipeline causes a fire at a Pipeline Terminal in Pasadena, Texas. One worker was killed, and another injured, with about 190,000 US gallons (720,000 L) of product being lost. The failure was caused by internal corrosion.

*2008 – On October 3, a crew working on a Turnpike expansion drill into a pertoleum products pipeline in Hamilton, New Jersey. Over 25,000 US gallons (95,000 L) of diesel fuel were spilled.

*2008 – On November 25, a gasoline release from a petroleum pipeline occurred at a retail mall in Murrysville, PA. Officials said the release occurred from the six-inch line at about 9:30 a.m. while a Sunoco Logistics crew was working on a ball valve.[107] The failure resulted in the evacuation of numerous stores, restaurants and roads in the immediate vicinity due to the dousing of gasoline and subsequent vapors emitting from the 11,760 US gallons (44,500 L) of spilled product.

*2009 – On February 18, a rupture of pipeline near Cygnet, Ohio, owned by Philadelphia-based Sunoco, resulted in one of the largest oil spills in Wood County history. At approximately 5:00 p.m., the company discovered the release at the pump station and terminal located in Cygnet, Ohio.[111] Upon learning of the release, the company immediately shut down the pipeline, stopped operations at the pump station and terminal, notified the appropriate authorities, and began an emergency response. As of 11:05 a.m. ET on February 19, the release had been stopped from the pipe. The damaged pipeline, which was operating at the time, released 1,250 barrels (199 m3) of crude oil into a farm field. Eventually, 782 of the 1,250 barrels (199 m3) released were recovered. Some of the crude oil, approximately 200 barrels (32 m3), did contaminate a local creek. There were no fatalities, or injuries.

2009 – On August 17, a pipeline was found leaking by an aerial patrol in Atoka County, Oklahoma. 50 barrels (7.9 m3) of diesel fuel were estimated to have been released as a result of this accident, and none of it was recovered.

2009 – On October 7, a leaking pipeline carrying jet fuel was accidentally ignited by a pipeline repair crew in Upton County, Texas.

2009 – On Novemebr 14, a fire at a gas compressor station near Cameron, West Virginia slightly burns one employee, and causes $5.6 million of damage to the facility.

2009 – On December 23, a crude oil pipeline started leaking in Galveston, Texas. There was no fire or explosion as a result of the accident, and an estimated 120 barrels (19 m3) of crude oil were released to the environment.

***2010 – On February 25, a natural gas liquids (NGL) pipeline ruptured near Pond Creek, Oklahoma, releasing over 575,000 US gallons (2,180,000 L) of NGL’s, and forcing road closures. There was no fire.

2010 – On March 1, at approximately 8:10 am CST, Mid-Valley Pipeline identified a release of crude oil in the manifold area of the Mid-Valley tank farm in Longview, TX. Crude oil was observed “gushing” from the soil in the manifold area, and 198 barrels of crude oil were estimated to have been released and 196 barrels were recovered from the secondary containment area within Mid-Valley’s site.

2010 – On March 25, there was a release of 1700 barrels of Vacuum Gas Oil (VGO) from the FM-1 pipeline into an open in-ground valve pit and the surrounding area in the West Yard of the Sunoco, R&M Philadelphia refinery in Philadelphia, PA. The area was under the control of the Operator in a fenced off area that is off-limits to the public.

**2010 – On April 5, a crude oil pipeline ruptures near near Green River, Wyoming. At least 84,000 US gallons (320,000 L) of crude were spilled. Corrosion in the pipeline was the cause.

**2010 – On April 23, near Solomon, Kansas, a pipeline ruptured due to previous excavation damage. About 1,659 barrels of natural gasoline were lost.

**2010 – In May, Memorial Weekend, a BP pipeline carrying gasoline leaked nearly 93,000 US gallons (350,000 L) into a farm field. The leak occurred in Constantine Township, St. Joseph County, Michigan.

*2010 – On June 12, a Chevron crude oil pipeline damage by lightning ruptured, causing 800 barrels (130 m3) of crude to spill into Red Butte Creek in Salt Lake City, Utah. Crude then flowed in a pond in Liberty Park.

****2010 – On July 26, Enbridge Energy Partners LLP (Enbridge), reported that a 30-inch (760 mm) pipeline belonging to Enbridge burst in Marshall, Michigan. The company estimates over 800,000 US gallons (3,000,000 L) of crude oil leaked into Talmadge Creek, a waterway that feeds the Kalamazoo River, whereas EPA reports over 1,139,569 gallons of oil have been recovered as of November 2011. On July 27, 2010, an Administrative Order was issued by U.S. EPA requiring the performance of removal actions in connection with the facility. The Order requires Enbridge to immediately conduct removal of a discharge or to mitigate or prevent a substantial threat of a discharge of oil and to submit a Work Plan for the cleanup activities that was to include a Health and Safety Plan, as required by 29 CFR 1910.120 (HAZWOPER). An oil spill cleanup contractor from Texas, Hallmark, bussed numerous undocumented workers to Battle Creek to work on the cleanup of oil spill and had them work in unsafe conditions.

**2010 – On August 10, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Justice Department announced that Plains All American Pipeline and several of its operating subsidiaries have agreed to spend approximately $41 million to upgrade 10,420 miles (16,770 km) of crude oil pipeline operated in the United States. The settlement resolves Plains’ Clean Water Act violations for 10 crude oil spills in Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Kansas, and requires the company to pay a $3.25 million civil penalty.

2010 – On August 27, a LPG pipeline sprang a leak in Gilboa, New York, forcing the evacuation of 23 people.

2010 – On December 1, a valve on a crude oil pipeline leaked about 500 barrels (79 m3) of crude in Salt Lake City, Utah. This failure was only 100 yards from a June 2010 failure on the same pipeline.

2010 – On December 2, a pipeline was discovered leaking gasoline near Livingston, Illinois.

*2010 – On December 14, a pipeline leaks crude oil near Lockport, Illinois. EPA officials say the spill is near wetlands that house several endangered species. Federal officials say about 21,000 US gallons (79,000 L) of oil were released in Lockport and Romeoville, about 35 miles (56 km) southwest of Chicago.

2010 – On December 21, a crude oil pipeline was discovered leaking into the Dominguez Channel in the Port of Los Angeles, California. Over 1,000 gallons of crude oil was recovered, but the pipeline company was alleged to have failed to report the spill to State or Federal pipeline authorities. A 61 count criminal complaint was later filed in this accident.

*2011 – On February 24, a pipeline near Texas City, Texas ruptured, sending up to 5,000 US gallons (19,000 L) of gasoline into Bayou Pierre.

***2011 – On April 13, a farmer & rancher near White Oak Township, Michigan smelled gasoline, and discovered gasoline from a products pipeline leaking into a drainage ditch. As of late September, an estimated 460,000 gallons of gasoline had been released, with about 111,000 gallons of it recovered.

*2011 – On May 19, a 10 inch diameter crude oil pipeline ruptured near Maysville, Oklahoma. Over 42,000 US gallons (160,000 L) of crude were lost. There was no fire. Internal pipeline corrosion was the cause.

2011 – On July 1, a 2 inch diameter lateral on a crude oil pipeline ruptured in Huntington Beach, California. A major road, Goldenwest Street, had to be closed for cleaning and pipeline repairs.

**2011 – On July 2, a 12-inch diameter Exxon Mobil crude oil pipeline ruptured, and spilled oil into the Yellowstone River in south-central Montana. Some residents of Laurel, Montana had to be evacuated. The break near Billings fouled the riverbank and forced municipalities and irrigation districts to close intakes. Exxon later increased the spill size estimate to 1500 barrels in January 2012 after seeing the damage to the pipeline. About 140 people were evacuated starting about 12:15 a.m. Saturday due to concerns about possible explosions and the overpowering fumes. All were allowed to return after instruments showed petroleum odors had decreased, although no information was available regarding the concentrations of benzene in air. Speculation involves high water flow in the Yellowstone River may have scoured the river bed and exposed the pipe. Consequently, with three oil refineries are located in the Billings area, the fire chief for the city of Laurel said he asked all three to turn off the flow of oil in their pipelines under the river after the leak was reported. ExxonMobil and Cenex Harvest Refinery did so, and that Conoco Phillips said its pipe was already shutdown. Cenex had a release into the Yellowstone River in September 2002. Exxon Mobil later announced the cleanup would cost $135 million.

**2011 – On July 22, A pipeline carrying jet fuel ruptured in Mango, Florida. About 31,500 US gallons (119,000 L) of fuel spilled. There was no fire or injuries.

2011 – On August 13, an 8 inch diameter NGL pipeline ruptured near Onowa, Iowa at a Missouri River crossing, during flooding conditions. About 818 barrels of NGL’s were lost. There were no evacuations or injuries, but 2 other pipelines in the same right of way were forced to shut down.

**2011 – On August 31, a pipeline carrying heating oil was hit by construction workers in East Providence, Rhode Island, spraying oil on roofs, trees, and pavement, and flowed into storm drains. At least 56,000 US gallons (210,000 L) of oil were spilled.

2011 – On September 20, a farmer digging to lay drainage tile hit a 10 inch diameter gasoline pipeline near Aurelius, New York, spilling about 3,300 US gallons (12 m3) of gasoline. There was no fire or injuries.

2011 – On October 12, a 2 inch diameter crude oil gathering pipeline failed in Oklahoma, spilling about 120 barrels of oil. There were no injuries or fire from the failure.

***2011 – On December 10, a landowner using a bulldozer hit a 8 inch diameter and a 12 inch diameter petroleum pipelines near Nemaha, Nebraska, rupturing both lines. The spill size was estimated to be 119,000 gallons of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel. Some of the fuels flowed into a creek leading into Jasper Creek. There were questions about the depth of soil coverage for this pipeline.

***2012 – On January 12, late, Sunoco pipeline ruptured and spilled about 117,000 gallons of gasoline in Wellington, Ohio. Some residents were evacuated for a week.

2012 – On January 31, a fuel pipeline to the Milwaukee, Wisconsin Mitchell International Airport was found leaking. Jet fuel had been smelled for about 2 weeks in the area, and was found in runoff water in the area.

2012 – On March 3, two cars that were drag racing went off the road they were on, and crash through a fence and into a crude oil pipeline in New Lenox, Illinois on March 3. The pipeline was ruptured, and the crude oil ignited. Two men from the vehicles were killed, and 3 others seriously burned.

*2012 – On March 17, a crude oil pipeline leaked near Grand Isle, Louisiana, spilling as much as 8,400 gallons of crude oil. There were no injuries reported for this one, thankfully.

(The above information is mainly from Wikipedia.)

So, Harper and Enbridge and Kinder Morgan, and Exxon for that matter, are telling us that this list will end in Louisiana, and won’t ever come to British Columbia?  Just how stupid do they think we are?

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