THE COMING PROBABLE COLLAPSE OF HIGH TECH CULTURES


ON THE COMING PROBABLE COLLAPSE OF HIGH TECH CULTURES

We don’t have to wait for global warming to bake us in the inescapable atmospheric oven before we begin to suffer. The collapse of techno civilization will come even sooner, where, in a normal summer afternoon at 50C/122F in the shade, where often there is no shade, you will not be able to run your A/Cs due to prolonged blackouts, and you won’t be able to have even temporary relief with your car’s A/C, because there will be no gasoline to run your car.

This will come abruptly in the not too distant future, perhaps a matter of one or two decades if not mere years, when our ever escalating demand for oil intersects oil’s own geometrical decline. Given that peak oil is long past, while peak demand is still somewhere in the murky future, the crash is inevitable. I have always shaken my head in disbelief when I read about projections saying that by year 2050 we will have cut oil consumption by so many percent. It never fails to amaze me to see people still buying new gasoline cars, when the days of affordable oil, and of oil itself, are numbered.

The oil-price graph will have peaks and valleys in micro-adjustments to supply and demand, but it will be in a generally upward trend due to the ever-rising demand and the ever dwindling supply. And there will come a time when one of these peaks will rise so high as to be unreachable by individuals and corporations alike. Oil companies are deviously inducing consumers to burn as much gas as possible for their maximum short-term profit, but in so doing, they hasten their own demise, alas, along with our own.

When this happens, the energy-dependent societal infrastructures, most notably the transportation system, especially that sector dealing with food distribution, be it in the form of trucks, trains, ships or planes, will all more or less grind to a halt. Grocery store shelves previously brimming with imported food such as spinach from China or bananas from Latin America, will be empty. Gasoline pumps will be dry. Abandoned car will be everywhere, many with keys left in the ignition, and no one will steal them.

Those who are well grounded in the global communication network, such as FaceBook, and cell-phones, should get used to the idea that the World Wide Web will have disintegrated, and they will feel isolated.

When we have fuel and food in the same sentence, something has to give. In the face of severe fuel and food shortage, and they are related, we have to decide on whether to use our drought shrunken crops of soy and corn for food or for fuel (ethanol), and in the case of food on whether the soy and corn should serve as human food or cattle feed, bearing in mind that it take 10-20kg of feed to produce 1kg of meat. If the former, the cattle will starve, and if the latter, then while the super-rich will continue munching on juicy steaks, the masses of humans will starve. The sad situation is that even the best scenario is a bad scenario, because there is simply no net-good human action that will result in any good scenario.

Major metropolises such as London, Los Angeles or New York City, and cities that are normally hot and dry, like Las Vegas or Phoenix, will not be pleasant places to be in. Given the stagnation of the food transportation system, most food available will be locally grown, it will be difficult to grow enough food within a large city to feed the entire populace, especially factoring in water shortages. I would not rule out emaciated corpses in the street. Law and order will have broken down and robbing and looting will be commonplace. And when it comes to the dead of winter closing in, many will be frozen to death.

Residents will try to emigrate to surrounding areas, by bicycle or on foot, but where are they to go? Along the miles and miles of hot and dry highways people will drop like flies. And those surviving will overwhelm the surround rural areas. If your family has a small farm on the outskirts of a major metropolis, consider it taken over and you possibly ousted if not killed. I suspect that gun-fire will be a common sound. The murder rate will be by the dozen per day.

There will be areas where the impact will be less severe, which are already serviced by electricity grids centred upon extant large-scale solar and wind installations, e.g. parts of eastern California and central Texas. Bear in mind, however, that most of our day to day commodities are derived from oil, including all plastic products, tires (each car tire requires 7 gallons of gasoline to make), pharmaceuticals, electronics, computers, buildings, and basically everything that requires oil to manufacture (e.g. entire cars). So, once these items have been used up, it cannot be expected that new products will take their place.

This does not necessarily mean that there will be no oil left anywhere in the world, but much of it will be in government controlled storage facilities for the most essential of governmental services, perhaps to the tune of several hundred million barrels in the United States. This may sound like a lot, but the formula is that one billion barrels can feed the current U.S. demand for only 8 weeks. If civilian usage is cut off, it would last longer, but not forever. And a large part of it will still go towards the military against likely oil-grab invasions, or worse, towards invading another country for their oil-in-storage, or whatever oil fields that still remain. Canada, with its still extensive tar sands, for example, will be a prime target, and the Arctic, with its ice cap melted off and its polar oil reservoirs accessible to deep water drilling, as well as its easily accessible methane hydrate deposits on land and on the shallow continental shelves, will likely be a global battlefield.

So, what can the individual citizens do to ensure their own survival? This brings us to the concept of the deep rural green community, which should have the following properties:

1. It should be beyond walking distance from a major metropolis, and topographically easy to defend.

2. It should be water-self-sufficient, i.e. on a river-front, lake-front, or has its own year-round stream or well, as well as enough rainfall.

3. It should be food-self-sufficient, i.e. endowed with a good stock of foundational organic seeds (no Monsanto please!), and enough land to produce enough food for the entire community.

4. It should be energy-self-sufficient, employing renewable energy sources only with on site solar panels and wind turbines, some biofuels, all electric appliances, including electric vehicles, solar cars for long distance travel, and enough batteries to store enough electricity.

5. It should comprise people with a broad range of knowledge and skills, including academic, agricultural, medical and technical.

6. It should be animal-friendly, both domestic and wild.

If you would like to explore this idea further, please like and comment.

Good luck to us all.

Anthony Marr, Founder and President
Heal Our Planet Earth (HOPE)
Global Anti-Hunting Coalition (GAHC)
Anthony-Marr@HOPE-CARE.org
http://www.HOPE-CARE.org
http://www.facebook.com/Anthony.Marr.001
http://www.facebook.com/Global_Anti-Hunting_Coalition
http://www.myspace.com/AnthonyMarr
http://www.youtube.com/AnthonyMarr
http://www.HomoSapiensSaveYourEarth.blogspot.com
http://www.DearHomoSapiens.blogspot.com
http://www.AnthonyMarr13.wordpress.com

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Best profession for being burnt alive in line of duty


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If you want to be burnt alive in the line of duty, I have the perfect profession for you. Here is a hint. In what is to follow, “5+7” refers to the clause “killing 5 of the work crew, and injuring 7 others”. One good thing: the death number is seldom 1, meaning that you likely wouldn’t have to die alone.

The “injuries” are by and large all burn cases, from which many would not recover, and you don’t have to be a worker either, e.g. [1+0 – workers in Topeka, Kansas, were installing a yard sprinkler system, hit a gas line. Gas from the leak later on exploded in a nearby home, burning a 73 year old woman, who died several weeks later.]

Nor do you have to be in a house: [4+0 – 4 campers near Kilgore, Texas, were burned to death when they were surrounded by gas from a pipeline leak that caught fire…]

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As you can see, just because you don’t have natural gas pipes in your house does not mean that you would be immune. The gas can “migrate” into your house via whatever conduit it could find, and blow all occupants to kingdom come.

In one case escaped propane “spread along the ground, and exploded several hours later, scorching an area over a mile wide. A girl being dropped off at a school bus stop was severely burned and later died…”

Yet another thing you will notice is that a natural gas “leak” from a pipeline is not like setting your gas-stove on low with the pilot-light out. The gas in a pipeline could be under hundreds of PSI’s pressure, and a jet through a pinhole can penetrate your body like a laser. But where it could find a pin-hole in a pipe, it would blow the whole thing sky high. A family of 12 having a picnic 180 meters – 2 football fields – from the rupture was wiped out with no survivors: 12+0.

Homeland Security should look into the natural gas industry (ex-Enron’s ex-pet); it feels almost like domestic terrorism.

4+>51 2010 – On September 9, a natural gas pipeline in San Bruno, California, exploded, killing 4, injuring at least 52 and levelled dozens of homes.

If you have looked into the previous list of pipeline oil spills – see [100 Causes for 100 Spills] – you would have been disgusted by the pollution, but at least you wouldn’t see charred bodies all over the place. If you are that way inclined, on the other hand, natural gas is your field.

So, is the current BC premier Christy Clark that way inclined? Why is she pushing so hard for natural gas to be BC’s tar-sands-equivalent, even using extreme techniques like fracturing? Does BC have an over-built burn unit? Or is it flooded with a surplus of unemployed coroners?

As for “fracking”, fack frucking I say!

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So, here are the major natural gas “mishaps” since 1890. Bloody indeed is its horrid history:

4+32 1890 – On January 24, a gas explosion destroyed a home in Columbus, Ohio, attracting a crowd of onlookers. While people were still gathered to look at the ruins of the home, a second gas explosion happened in a nearby home. The second explosion caused 4 deaths, and there were 32 injuries from both explosions.[1]

1929 – On July 22, two oil company patrolmen were killed by an explosion of a gas pipeline near Castaic, California.

0+6 1930 – On April 4, gas leaked into the sewer system in New York City, New York, and later exploded. 6 people were injured, 5,000 were evacuated from nearby buildings, and telephone cables were damaged.

3+10 1930 – Excavation in Fairport, New York caused a major gas explosion on July 30. 3 people were killed, 10 were injured, and a 4 family house was damaged by the blast and following fire.

4+0 1931 – 4 campers near Kilgore, Texas were burned to death when they were surrounded by gas from a pipeline leak that caught fire on April 17. The flames also spread to brush and timber in the area, preventing rescuers from reaching the bodies for 3 hours.

1936 – On February 19, a worker inside a sewer in Utica, New York ignited natural gas that had leaked into the sewer system. An explosion was triggered, and the following fire burned for more than 24 hours. 4,000 people were evacuated.

1936 – A plow being used in a field near Lawrence, Kansas ruptured a gas pipeline on December 1. The boy running the plow escaped without injuries from the following fire.

6+0 1937 – An oil pipeline being repaired by gas welding exploded near Pryor, Oklahoma on January 26. 2 of the repair crew, and 4 wives of the repairmen were killed by the explosion and following fire.

4+12 1940 – A gas compressor plant exploded in Braintree, Massachusetts on April 4, killing 4 people and injuring 12 others.

5+10 1940 – On August 29, a newly hired crew of repairmen were working on fixing a pipeline leak near Buffalo, Oklahoma, when the pipeline exploded and started a fire. 5 of the crew were killed, 10 others were burned, and <i>10 horses burned to death</i>.

1943 – On January 18, a grass fire near Tyler, Texas spread to a leak in an 8 inch diameter natural gas pipeline. The gas leak was initially small, but grew quickly, until the gas flames were about 200 feet (61 m) high. Gas service was cut to 28,000 people.

1943 – Flooding along the Arkansas River broke the “Big Inch” pipeline on May 18 near Little Rock, Arkansas. It took almost 7 days to build a pipeline bypass around the failed area.

1943 – On November 8, a gas pipeline exploded for unknown reasons in Newhall, California, starting a brush fire.

5+7 1946 – A crew was working to connect a new gas main in Peru, Illinois on July 4, when the old gas main exploded, killing 5 of the work crew, and injuring 7 others.

1948 – On March 18, the 20 inch diameter “Little Big Inch” natural gas pipeline near Petersburg, Indiana, exploded and burned, throwing pieces of the pipe as far as 300 feet (91 m) away from the blast point. 3 homes were destroyed by the fire.

4+17 1948 – October 18: Vapors from a leaking butane pipeline at a refinery in Texas City, Texas spread out along a nearby highway, causing a number of cars to stall. The gas then exploded, killing 4 people, and seriously burning 17 others.

0+17 1948 – On November 19, the 24 inch diameter “Big Inch” pipeline pumping station exploded and caught fire near Seymour, Indiana, causing $3,000,000 in damage, and injuring 17 workers at the station.

1949 – On January 18, a power failure at a pipeline pumping station on the “Big Inch” pipeline caused a natural gas fire to break out near Batesville, Indiana. The fire burned for over 9 hours. An electrical arc was suspected in causing the power failure.

1949 – A 30 inch diameter natural gas transmission pipeline near Moreno Valley, California ruptured on January 19, forcing at least 18 families to evacuate. There was no injuries or fire.

1949 – A section of the “Little Big Inch” exploded and burned in North Vernon, Indiana on March 4, burning a mother and her infant. It was the fourth explosion on that pipeline in Indiana that year.

1949 – On April 2, the 20-inch (510 mm) “Little Inch” natural gas pipeline exploded and burned near Sedgwick, Arkansas.

1949 – On October 6, a series of explosions tore holes in the “Big Inch” pipeline in Goreville, Illinois, but there was no fires or injuries.

1949 – On October 10, an unfinished portion of a natural gas pipeline exploded and burned near Floris, Iowa. Gas had flowed past the last closed valve into the under construction section.

1949 – A 16 inch natural gas pipeline near Saraland, Alabama ruptured on November 8, threatening to shut down the gas supply 100,000 to people. There was no fire.

1949 – A road grader operator was seriously burned when his grader hit a 6 inch gas pipeline west of Mankato, Kansas on November 17.

1949 – On December 8, an explosion and fire occurred at a compressor station for a 24 inch natural gas pipeline in Centralia, Missouri. Flames could be seen for 150 miles (240 km) away.

18+<100 1949 – A leaking gas line caused an explosion at a packing plant in Sioux City, Iowa on December 14. 18 workers were killed, and almost 100 injured.

0+2 1949 – On December 15, a 22 inch natural gas pipeline exploded and burned near Carthage, Tennessee, injuring 2 people. Flames shot 1,000 feet (300 m) into the air.

1949 – A 24 inch natural gas transmission pipeline exploded in Trousdale, Kansas in December 22. There were no injuries.[54]

1950 – On January 16, a 24 inch diameter natural gas transmission pipeline exploded and burned in Dumas, Texas. The resulting fire could be seen for 33 miles (53 km).

1950 – On January 20, the “Big Inch” natural gas pipeline exploded and burned near Caldwell, Ohio.

1+2 1950 – On March 13, an overhead pipeline at a refinery in Martinez, California leaked, causing flammable fumes to spread onto a highway. An automobile ignited the fumes, killed a woman, and injuring 2 other in vehicle. 3 auto were also burned.

1950 – A series of hydrostatic tests on the “Big Inch” pipeline led to 70 ruptures of that pipeline in the New Jersey area.

1950 – The “Big Inch” gas pipeline exploded and burned on July 1 near Beallsville, Ohio. A house and a barn were destroyed by the fire.

1950 – Three workers were killed in an underground vault in Los Angeles, California on August 22 when a gas main exploded. There was no fire.

1950 – On September 7, a new natural gas pipeline exploded near Big Rapids, Michigan. Two barns were destroyed by the following fire that was seen for 50 miles.

1950 – A 30 inch diameter natural gas transmission pipeline exploded and burned near Chatham, Virginia on November 3. The pipe ruptured for 550 feet (170 m), and parts of the pipe started to melt from the heat.

1950 – On November 24, a newly built 30 inch natural gas pipeline ruptured for nearly 3,000 feet (910 m), causing a fire that destroyed 2 homes under construction near King of Prussia, Pennsylvania.

1950 – On December 25, an explosion at a gas metering station in Danville, Indiana left 700 families without gas service.

1951 – On January 10, two gas explosions 3 hours apart hit McKees Rock, Pennsylvania, injuring 8 people, igniting a fire, and causing widespread damage.

3+0 1951 – A gas main pressure regulator failed in Rochester, New York on September 21, causing a series of explosion that last for 4 hours. 3 people were killed, and 30 homes were destroyed.

0+29 1951 – A Halloween Parade on October 31 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania was interrupted by 4 gas main explosions. 29 people were injured.

1951 – A 12 inch diameter temporary gas transmission pipeline exploded and burned near Cranberry, Pennsylvania on November 27, causing a 200-foot (61 m) high flame that could be seen for a number of miles away. The explosion was heard for 10 miles around. A pipeline compressor station under construction at the site was destroyed. A nearby Elementary school was relocated following the failure, due to local fears of a future pipeline failure. The pipeline had been installed just the previous summer.

1952 – On May 17, a section of the “Little Big Inch” gas pipeline ruptured near a valve, injuring 6 pipeline workers near Marietta, Pennsylvania. The pipeline had been temporarily located above ground to allow construction of a new gas compressor station. There was no fire.

1952 – On July 9, the “Little Big Inch” gas pipeline explodes and burns west of York, Pennsylvania. Another explosion followed a few days later on July 18, in the same area on that pipeline, but there was no fire the second time.

1952 – Four men working on an 8 inch gas pipeline near Mount Pleasant, Michigan were burned when that pipeline ruptured as they raised it for reconditioning on September 26.

1953 – On April 13, a gas pipeline serving Elizabeth, Louisiana and 2 paper mills with striking workers was ruptured by explosives. This was the sixth time that pipeline had been ruptured during the 7 months of the strike.

1+50 1953 – On September 10, a gas explosion in Cleveland, Ohio killed one person and injured 50 others.

1953 – On October 18, a 30 inch diameter gas transmission pipeline exploded and burned near Uniontown, Pennsylvania. A 40-foot (12 m) section of the pipeline was destroyed.

1953 – A US Air Force T-33 trainer jet crashed into a natural gas pipeline bridge over the Mississippi River on November 24 near Greenville, Mississippi, rupturing and igniting the pipeline.

5+15 1954 – A leaking LP gas distribution line was blamed for causing an explosion in Goldsboro, North Carolina on April 12 that killed 5 people, injured 15 others, and demolished 3 buildings. The LPG distribution system was 40 to 50 years old, and had other leaks in that city.

1955 – The “Big Inch” gas pipeline exploded and burned near Roseville, Ohio on March 7. Flames reached 400 feet (120 m) high, and 8 acres (32,000 m2) of brush & timber burned.

4+2 1955 – On March 9, a pipeline construction crew of 4 were killed while trying to move a pipeline for the building of a Toll road in Chesterton, Indiana. Two other pipeline workers were injured, and a school a quarter mile away was evacuated.

1+0 1955 – A bulldozer ruptured and ignited a gas pipeline in Brookshire, Texas. Flames reached 250 feet (76 m), and the bulldozer operator was killed.

1955 – On July 17, a natural gas transmission pipeline blew out near Lufkin, Texas. a 20-foot (6.1 m) section of pipe ruptured, but here was no fire.

21+15 1955 – On August 10, a gas leak in Ashtabula, Ohio was ignited by electrical equipment or lightning, causing a restaurant to explode. 21 people were killed, 15 more were injured, and 6 buildings destroyed.

0+1 1955 – A gas pipeline being tested in Detroit, Michigan exploded and burned on September 7, injuring one person, and destroying 50 cars.

2+3 1955 – On October 10, a crew cleaning the outside of a natural gas pipeline with a heavy rubber ball ruptured a coupler, causing an explosion and fire east of Orleans, Indiana. Two members of the crew were killed, and 3 others were injured.

3+0 1956 – On February 11, a corroded gas line from a gas main leaked, causing an explosion that killed 3 people at a meat packing plant in Toledo, Ohio.

1956 – A natural gas pipeline exploded and burned near Herscher, Illinois on March 10. There were no injuries reported.

1956 – On October 16, a petroleum products pipeline leaked butane near Greenwich, Ohio, forcing evacuations of 25 homes, and delaying rail and road traffic. There was no fire.

3+11 1957 – On January 16, an explosion and fire occurred at a natural gas compressor station in Liberal, Kansas, killing 3 workers at that station. 11 other workers were injured, and the fire burned for 2 hours. The shut down of this gas pipeline from the explosion affected customers as far away as Ohio in sub zero weather conditions.

3+7 1957 – Two explosion from a natural gas main killed 3 people in Peoria, Illinois on January 17. 7 others were injured, and a home and a 2 story building were levelled.

1957 – The “Little Inch” natural gas pipeline exploded near East Berlin, Pennsylvania on January 23. Flames shot over 200 feet (61 m) into the air.

2+42 1957 – A leaking gas main in Reno, Nevada led to three explosions on February 6. 2 people were killed, 42 others injured, and 5 buildings were destroyed.

0+1 1957 – On June 3, a 26 inch diameter natural gas transmission pipeline exploded and burned near Ellinwood, Kansas, destroying a farm house. One person was injured.

1957 – A 16 inch gas transmission pipeline burst near Edwall, Washington on October 18. Spokane, Washington lost most of its gas supply from the failure. There was no fire.

1957 – A 30 inch diameter gas pipeline exploded near Riverdale, New Jersey on October 28. There were no injuries or fire.

13+0 1957 – On December 5, a gas line in the basement of a store that was being worked on in Villa Rica, Georgia, exploded. 13 people were killed in the explosion and following fire. At least 6 stores were destroyed.

0+1 1958 – On January 31, a fire on a wooden bridge in Compton, California caused a 8 inch gas pipeline to rupture and burn. One spectator was injured fleeing the pipeline blaze.

2+1 1958 – A natural gas metering station in Kimberly, Idaho exploded on February 17, killing two pipeline company workers, injuring another worker, and destroyed the metering building. There was no fire.

3+1 1958 – On June 1, gas leaking from a pipeline near Big Spring, Texas was ignited and exploded, killing 3 fishermen and seriously burning another fisherman.

2+0 1958 – A truck missed a curve on a road and crashed into a gas transmission pipeline compressor station near Kings Mountain, North Carolina on September 16. There was an explosion and fire, and the 2 men in the truck were killed.

7+23 1958 – A leaking and burning gasline under a street lead to several explosions at a Hotel in Allentown, Pennsylvania, on December 14. 7 people were killed and 23 others injured.

1+1 1959 – A worker on gas transmission pipeline was closing a valve, when it exploded near Newton, Pennsylvania on September 25. The worker was killed, and another worker was injured.

1959 – A cleaning device apparently ruptured a 10 inch diameter NGL pipeline, south of Austin, Texas, on October 8. 300 to 400 people were evacuated. The gas eventually dissipated safely.

1959 – A gas transmission pipeline exploded on November 2 near North Jackson, Ohio. A section of the pipeline was hurled 100 feet (30 m) from the blast crater. There was no fire, and no injuries reported.

1960 – An estimated 125,000 persons in southwest Missouri were without gas in subfreezing temperatures for several days due to a ditch-digging machine rupturing a pipeline.

10+0 1960 – In July, excavation work in Merrill, Wisconsin causes a gas leak and gas explosion that killed 10 people.

0+9 1960 – A ditching machine used in laying a water main hit an 8 inch diameter natural gas pipeline in Sarasota, Florida on October 5. 9 People were injured in the following explosion and fire.

2+4 1960 – On October 27, a 16 inch diameter gas transmission pipeline near Checotah, Oklahoma exploded while it was being worked on to repair a leak. 2 of the repair crew died, and 4 others were injured.

1960 – A 30 inch gas transmission pipeline exploded and burned at a gas sub station in Huntington, West Virginia on December 19. Windows were broken, 1 homes was damaged, and brush burned, but there were no injuries.

1961 – On January 4, a gas pipeline failure near Waynesburg, Pennsylvania ignited, causing a fire that was widely seen in the area. There were no injuries.

0+3 1961 – On February 22, a pipeline exploded and burned in a refinery in Borger, Texas, killing 9 members of a construction crew, and burning another crewman.
1961 The main City of Miami, Florida Garage was destroyed by a gas explosion on February 23. The blast was caused by a ditch digging machine being used in the garage hitting and rupturing a 2 inch gas pipe. One person was seriously burned by the blast, and 2 fire fighters were injured fight the fire that followed the blast.

1961 – A 36 inch gas transmission pipeline exploded near Laurel, Mississippi on June 18. 10 people were injured, and one home was destroyed from flames that went hundreds of feet in the air. A crater 30 feet (9.1 m) long and 20 feet (6.1 m) deep was created by the failure.

0+22 1961 – A 26 inch diameter gas transmission pipeline exploded and burned near Winchester, Kentucky on September 11. 22 people suffered various burn injuries.

1961 – On November 19, a gas pipeline exploded and burned near Warrenton, Virginia. The blast created a crater 40 feet (12 m) long, 10 feet (3.0 m) wide, and 6 feet (1.8 m) deep. There were no injuries.

1961 – An 18 inch diameter natural gas pipeline exploded and burned near Cadiz, Ohio on November 25. There were no injuries or damage.

0+6 1962 – Gas leaking from a 10 inch diameter natural gas transmission pipeline exploded on February 20 in Portage, Ohio, injuring 6 people and destroying a home.

1+5 1962 – On June 14, a backhoe ruptured a gas transmission pipeline near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The escaping gas exploded and ignited later on while a crew was trying to repair the line. One of the crew was killed, and 5 others injured in the fire.

1962 – On August 2, a natural gas transmission pipeline exploded and burned in Clearwater, Florida, next to US Highway 19, forcing that road’s closure for a time. There were no injuries reported. Investigators found the line had previous mechanical damage as a cause of the failure.

0+1 1962 – A 30 inch diameter gas transmission failed on August 2 in Kansas City, Kansas. The gas flowed for 10 minutes before exploding and igniting. An 8 inch gas distribution pipeline was also ruptured, 11 homes were destroyed, and 23 others were damaged. At least one person was injured.

1+0 1962 – On September 11, an 8 inch propane/LPG pipeline was ruptured by road building equipment near Eatonton, Georgia. One of the road workers was overcome and asphyxiated by the propane fumes. Propane fumes followed the Oconee River for 10 miles (16 km) into Lake Sinclair.

1+9 1963 – On January 2, a gas transmission pipeline ruptured due to a defective weld in San Francisco, California. The gas ignited, one firefighter died from a heart attack, and 9 other firefighters were injured fighting the resulting inferno.

0+16 1963 – An explosion and fire spread through a gas pipeline compressor station in Montezuma, Indiana on March 12, injuring 16 workers.

1963 – On October 31, a 6 inch diameter butane pipeline was ruptured by an earth mover near West Millgrove, Ohio. The equipment operator was critically burned by the following explosion and fire.

1964 – A Santa Fe Railroad Freight Train apparently ignited fumes from a leaking propane pipeline near Bosworth, Missouri on February 4. The explosion and fire ignited 4 diesel locomotives and some box cars, and derailed other box cars. One member of the Rail Crew was injured.

2+0 1964 – On February 7, 2 workers installing insulation on a valve in a manhole in Richardson, Texas were overcome by gas when an 8 inch pipeline in the vault ruptured, and were killed.

1964 – A front loader ruptured a gas pipeline in Fort Worth, Texas on February 28, seriously burning the loader operator.

1964 – On May 12, a bulldozer hit and broke a valve on an LPG pipeline near Demopolis, Alabama while grading land. The resulting fire caused fears of flames spreading to an underground storage facility, but the fire was later controlled. There were no injuries.

0+4 1964 – A gas line being moved in Miami, Florida exploded and burned on November 18. 4 people were injured.

5+23 1964 – On November 25, a recently replace natural gas transmission pipeline exploded and burned in Saint Francisville, Louisiana, killing 5 workers of the pipeline, and injuring at least 23 others.

1+0 1965 – On January 6, a house in Garnett, Kansas was destroyed by an explosion, and later on gas was found leaking from a 2 inch gasline in the street front of it, and was suspected as the cause. A young boy was killed. The leak may have also caused another nearby house explosion the previous November.

1+2 1965 – On January 21, an 8 inch diameter propane transmission pipeline 15 miles (24 km) east of Jefferson City, Missouri leaked. The propane spread along the ground, and exploded several hours later, <i>scorching an area over a mile wide</i>. A girl being dropped off at a school bus stop was severely burned and later died, and 2 other people were burned.

17+9 1965 – A 32 inch diameter gas transmission pipeline, north of Natchitoches, Louisiana, belonging to the Tennessee Gas Pipeline exploded and burned from Stress corrosion cracking(SCC) on March 4, killing 17 people. At least 9 others were injured, and 7 homes 450 feet from the rupture were destroyed. This accident, and others of the era, led then-President Lyndon B. Johnson to call for the formation of a national pipeline safety agency in 1967. The same pipeline had also had an explosion on May 9, 1955, just 930 feet (280 m) from the 1965 failure.

1+15 1965 – On July 24, a natural gas pipeline exploded and burned when workers were welding on a tie-in pipeline onto it near Tescott, Kansas. One of the workers died, and 15 others were injured.

1+8 1965 – On August 21, a 9-year-old girl was killed and eight people were injured in a pipeline explosion in western Van Wert County, Ohio. The explosion threw up flames that could be seen from 40 miles (64 km) away and scorched a 100-acre (0.40 km2) area of farmland. Nancy Anna May Rigdon was killed in her bed in a house 300 yards from the blast site. The rest of her family was injured but survived. Investigators said the explosion was caused by gas leaking from an eight-inch pipeline apparently ignited by a spark from a passing train.

1965 – A 8 inch diameter gasoline pipeline ruptured in Sylvania, Ohio on August 23. The danger of fire or explosion forced evacuations of residents in a 2-square-mile (5.2 km2) area. There was no fire.

1965 – On October 25, a ruptured pipeline spilled naphtha in Mount Cory, Ohio, forcing evacuations until the naphtha evaporated.

1966 – A 6 inch diameter natural gas pipeline ruptured in Norfolk, Nebraska on January 28, shutting off gas to 20,000 people in 10 communities on January 28.

0+8 1966 – On December 14, a leaking propane pipeline near Swedenborg, Missouri made a car stall. Other came to aid the stalled car, and someone lit a cigarette, igniting the fumes. 8 people were burned and hospitalized.

1967 – A leaking gas main in the Jamaica section of New York City, New York caught fire on January 13. 2 pieces of FDNY equipment responding to the gas leak report were burned, as well as numerous buildings. The fire spread to 13 alarm size, with 63 fire companies being used to control the situation. The cause of the leak was the failure of a moisture scrubbing “drip pot” on the pipeline.

1+1 1967 – A 6 inch diameter propane pipeline exploded and burned while it was being worked on in Meeker, Oklahoma on January 10. One of the workers was killed, and another injured.

1967 – Manufacturers Light and Heat Company announced they were requesting to the Federal Power Commission permission to allow a new pipeline to replace 73.5 miles of older pipeline, which was having 200 to 450 leaks a year in Eastern Pennsylvania.

2+4 1967 – On May 16, a pile driver ruptured a propane pipeline in Dearborn, Michigan. The escaping gas caught fire, with 2 construction workers being killed, and 4 others seriously burned.

1967 – A leaking pipeline released 30,000 barrels (4,800 m3) of JP-4 grade jet fuel in Wilmington, California on June 30. There was no fire.

1968 – A petroleum products pipeline was discovered to be leaking on January 27, near Kokomo, Mississippi. Damage to cotton crops and water wells was discovered soon afterward.

41+150 1968 – On April 6, natural gas leaking from a pipeline in Richmond, Indiana built up in a sporting goods store and exploded. Gunpowder in the that store exploded later on. 41 people were killed, 150 were injured, and 15 buildings destroyed.

9+3 1968 – On May 29, a bulldozer ruptured a 1-inch gas service line at a children’s nursery in Hapeville, Georgia, causing an explosion and fire. Seven children and two adults were killed, and three children were seriously injured in the accident.

2+3 1968 – An 8 inch diameter propane pipeline rupture in a landslide ruptured near Plainfield, Ohio on June 2. 2 people were killed, 3 others injured by burns, and 7 buildings and 7 vehicles were destroyed.

1+4 1968 – A coal company digging machine hit an 8 inch LPG pipeline in Fulton County, Illinois on September 3, killing one person and injuring 4 others.

5+0 1968 – An LPG pipeline, near Yutan, Nebraska ruptured on December 5. Repair crews responded to the pipeline rupture, and thought LPG vapors were dispersed, but ignited the vapor cloud by driving into it. Five repairmen were killed. After the accident, the Nebraska State Fire Marshal ordered MAPCO to reduce its operating pressure, and to hydrostatic retest 52 miles (84 km) of that pipeline. During the tests, 195 longitudinal seams failed.

0+1 1968 – On December 18, a 30 inch diameter gas pipeline exploded and burned at a gas processing plant in Gibson, Louisiana. One plant worker was injured.

1+9 1969 – On May 6, a gas pipeline in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, that had been moved, was undergoing pressure testing when a cap on it blew off, hitting and rupturing another nearby gas pipeline. That pipeline exploded and burned, killing 1 worker, injuring 9 other workers, and damaging 3 homes.

0+7 1969 – On June 3, overpressure of a low pressure natural gas distribution system in Gary, Indiana caused numerous small fires and explosions. A gas company worker’s errors allowed much higher than normal gas pressure in a gas distribution system. 56 square blocks were evacuated, 7 people were injured, 6 homes destroyed, and 19 other homes damaged.

0+7 1969 – On September 9, a converted natural gas pipeline running at 789 psi near Houston, Texas ruptured, causing a massive fire. Construction work downstream of the accident led to a pressure build up that caused the rupture. 7 people were injured, 13 homes were destroyed, and many others damaged.

1969 – On December 25, a land leveler ruptured a 22 inch natural gas transmission pipeline in Hermiston, Oregon. Gas at 600 psi sprayed from the pipeline. A warning sign about the existence of the gas pipeline was 10 feet (3.0 m) away from the rupture site.

3+0 1970 – A leak natural gas pipeline exploded in Houma, Louisiana on January 24, killing 3 people, and demolishing half a block of downtown buildings.

1970 – On December 9, the Propane vapor cloud explosion in Port Hudson, Phillips Pipeline Company. propane gas explosion, Franklin County, Missouri. A leak led to propane cloud explosion with a force estimated up to 50 tons of TNT. The NTSB cited past external and internal corrosion issues, and poor welds on the uncoated pipeline as concerns.

2+0 1970 – Explosion of a 30-inch diameter 1100 psi inlet natural gas pipeline, bringing offshore natural gas into a gas drying plant in southern Louisiana. Two plant personnel were killed. Rupture was at a junction of a 12-inch gas line to the 30-inch main line.

15+>60 1970 – On December 11, A restaurant owner opened a gas line valve in New York, New York, not knowing that part of the gas line was open and unconnected. The gas in the building exploded, killing 15 people, & injuring more than 60 others.

7+0 1971 – A faulty valve on a 3 inch diameter natural gas pipeline was suspected of causing a gas leak that resulted in 3 separate explosions, including a house explosion in Lambertville, New Jersey that killed 7 people.

1971 – On June 5, an ammonia pipeline failed near Floral, Arkansas, releasing 80 tons of ammonia.

1971 – On October 4, 2 gas explosions in North Richland Hills, Texas. Gas migrated into 2 homes from leaking gas pipes.

6+0 1971 – On November 17, a gas company repair crew was overcome in a service vault in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 2 workmen were overcome initially, and 4 others attempting to rescue them were also overcome by gas asphyxiation. All 6 died.

1972 – On January 29, during the blowdown of a pipeline dehydrator, LPG fumes caught fire at Conway, Kansas

1972 – On March 24, a Natural gas explosion at Annandale, Virginia.

0+2 1972 – On June 15, a crew was welding on a gas main in Bryan, Ohio that had been shut off, when someone inadvertently openned a valve that fed gas into that main. The gas ignited, and exploded, serious injuring 2 workers.

4+0 1972 – On June 20, a 12 inch diameter high pressure propane pipeline, near Butler, Alabama, was ruptured by a road grader. A short time after the line was ruptured, a car drove into the vapor cloud. The car stalled, and trying to restart it was suspected to have ignited the vapor cloud, killing four people.

6+9 1972 – On October 30, a bulldozer working on a power company construction project ruptured a gas main in Lake City, Minnesota. Leaking gas accumulated in, then exploded in a nearby variety store, killing 6 and injuring 9.

1972 – On November 18, a leak in a weld on a 36 inch diameter gas transmission pipeline in Bend, Oregon forced the shutdown of gas service to 3,000 customers.

3+4 1973 – On February 7, a cracked gas main leaked in Adamsville, Alabama. The escaping gas exploded, killing 3 people and injuring 2 others. A string of other gas main cracking incidents occurred in this city, killing one other person, and injuring 2 others.

5+22 1973 – On February 21, installation of a sewer was suspected of damaging a gas line in Coopersburg, Pennsylvania. Leaking gas later exploded in an apartment building, killing 5 people, injuring 22 others, and destroying the building.

6+2 1973 – On February 22, in Austin, Texas, a natural gas liquids (NGL) pipeline ruptured due to an improper weld. A passing car or truck set off a vapor cloud explosion and fire. Six people were killed, and 2 others injured.

1+1 1973 – On Mya 3, improper sampling procedures on an LPG pipeline killed one worker and injured another from freezing at Dayton, Ohio.

2+0 1973 – In the summer, a pipeline ruptured in Diamond, Louisiana. The escaping gas fumes were ignited by a lawnmower, killing 2 people.

1974 – On January 2, a 22 inch diameter natural gas transmission pipeline failed in Prairie du Rocher, Illinois. The resulting fire caused no serious damage, but 7,000 people in the area were left without gas heating for several subfreezing days.

1974 – On March 2, a 30 inch diameter gas pipeline failed at 797 pounds pressure inside a 34-inch diameter casing pipe under a road near Monroe, Louisiana. 10 acres of forest were burned, but there were no injuries or deaths. A substandard girth weld was the cause. The failure of automatic valves on the pipeline to close upon a pressure drop were also cited in contributing to the size of the accident.

3+0 1974 – On March 15, a gas transmission pipeline ruptured near Farmington, New Mexico, killing a family of 3 in a truck driving nearby when the gas ignited. Corrosion along the longitudinal seem weld of the pipe section caused the failure.

0+>70 1974 – April22, a gas line in a commercial building in New York, New York, was ruptured by falling equipment in a basement. The escaping gas later exploded, injuring more than 70 people.

2+0 1974 – On May 3, a previously damaged gas main ruptured in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, causing an explosion that killed 2, and caused extensive damage to 4 row homes. Earlier plumbing work was suspect to have caused the gas line damage.

5+0 1974 – On May 21, a 6 inch gas-gathering pipeline, ruptured at the edge of a rural road south of Meridian, Mississippi. Three vehicles entered the area which contained the escaping gas, and stalled near the rupture. The gas ignited at 10:05 p.m., and five persons died as a result. The 3 vehicles were destroyed and 40 acres (160,000 m2) of woodland were burned. Although less than 4 years old, the 6-inch pipe had corroded internally and had been embrittled by hydrogen.

1974 – On June 9, a 30 inch gas transmission pipeline failed and gas ignited near Bealeton, Virginia, from hydrogen stress cracking. Failure alarms at the nearest upstream gas compressor station did not activate, and the pipeline failure was first notice by a compressor station employee happening to see the large fire from the pipeline rupture.

0+3 1974 – On August 13, an ammonia pipeline failed near Hutchinson, Kansas after a pump station was started against a closed valve. 3 police officers were treated for ammonia inhalation; approximately 200 persons were evacuated from the area of the vapors; trees, lawns, shrubbery, and crops were burned; and an estimated 11,000 fish were killed.

1974 – On September 14, a propane pipeline to an underground storage cavern failed in Griffith, Indiana. The propane later caught fire. 1,000 residents were evacuated during the incident.

1974 – On November 24, a 12 inch diameter gas gathering pipeline exploded and burned near Meta, Kentucky. There were no injuries reported. Acts of previous vandalism against the pipeline company had happened before.

2+3 1975 – On January 23, a propane chiller exploded violently during maintenance work on it near Iowa City, Iowa. 2 workers were killed and 3 others injured by the failure.

4+0 1975 – On May 12, a natural gas liquids (NGL) pipeline ruptured due to previous mechanical damage at Devers, Texas. 4 people were killed in a following vapor cloud fire. The pipeline had been damaged when a valve was installed on the pipeline.

1+0 1975 – In June, an explosion at a home in East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, was caused by natural gas leaking into the home from an open main in the middle of the street. One person was killed. In 1973, workers hired by the gas company had falsified records showing the main had been closed.

0+9 1975 – On August 2, an LPG pipeline ruptured near Romulus, Michigan, due to previous mechanical damage to the pipeline, and over pressurization from operator error, caused by closing a valve against a pumping pipeline, at a storage facility. Nine people were injured in the following vapor cloud fire. Flames 500 feet (150 m) high engulfed a 600-foot (180 m)-diameter area, destroyed four houses and damaged three others, burned 12 vehicles, and consumed 2,389 barrels (379.8 m3) of propane.

3+2 1975 – On October 13, employees at a gas processing plant at Goldsmith, Texas heard leak gas, and investigated. Before the leak could be found, a 12 inch diameter pipeline there exploded, killing 3 of the crew, injuring 2 others, and causing extensive plant damage.

5+2 1976 – On January 7, a repair crew working on natural gas gathering compressor station at Cedardale, Oklahoma, opened the wrong valve in an attempt to increase gas flow. Natural gas & Natural Gas Liquids flow out of an open 12 inch pipeline, and were ignited by an open flame heater. 5 of the crew were killed, and 2 seriously burned.

23+0 1976 – On January 10, gas leak at the Pathfinder Hotel in Fremont, Nebraska, exploded, killing 23 people. A compression coupling had pulled apart, causing gas to leak into the Hotel’s basement.

2+0 1976 – On February 8, an improperly assembled compression coupling failed on a gas distribution line in Phoenix, Arizona, causing a house explosion that killed 2 people.

11+0 1976 – On February 25, an LPG/NGL pipeline ruptured near Whitharral, Texas, leading to vapor cloud fire that killed one, severely burning 4 others who later died, destroyed two homes, and burned an area about 400 yards wide. Electrical resistance weld (ERW) seam failure is suspected for the failure. From January 1968 to the date of the Whitharral accident, 14 longitudinal pipe seam failures had occurred on that pipeline system, which resulted in 6 other fatalities, and the escape of over 60,000 barrels (9,500 m3) of LPG.

6+0 1976 – On March 27, a two-story building in Phenix City, Alabama, exploded and burned from a gas leak. The explosion and fire killed the six persons in the building. The NTSB found that gas at 20-psig pressure had leaked from a cracked, 3-inch cast iron gas main.

9+0 1976 – On June 16, a front loader hit an 8 inch petroleum products pipeline in Los Angeles, California, during a road widening project along Venice Boulevard. 9 people were killed, a plastic factory was destroyed, and other serious property damage occurred.

6+0 1976 – On August 9, a road grader hit a 20 inch gas transmission pipeline near Calhoun, Louisiana. Six people were killed in the ensuing fire, 6 families were left homeless, and a mobile home and 2 houses were destroyed.

1+2 1976 – On August 13, a flash fire in the basement of a house in Bangor, Maine, occurred while a gas company crew was checking for the cause of low gas pressure at the home. The fire killed one gas company employee, burned two other employees, and caused minor damage to the house. One of the crew was using a match to light the basement of the home, and another crew member was smoking when the fire started.

2+4 1976 – On August 29, an explosion and fire destroyed a house at Kenosha, Wisconsin. Two persons were killed, four persons were injured, and two adjacent houses were damaged. The destroyed house was not served by natural gas. However, natural gas, which was escaping at 58 psig pressure from a punctured 2-inch plastic main located 39 feet (12 m) away, had entered the house through a 6 inch sewer lateral that had been bored through to install the gas line.

1+1 1976 – On December 7, an explosion and fire at a gas pipeline compressor station in Orange Grove, Texas killed one plant worker, and injured another.

1977 – On January 2, a gas pipeline ruptured and burned near Nursery, Texas. Some power poles were destroyed, but there were no injuries.

1977 – On February 4, a gas pipeline exploded and burned in Stockton, California. Another gas pipeline fire had occurred nearby 4 days earlier. There were no injuries.

1977 – On July 20, a 12 inch diameter propane pipeline ruptured near Ruff Creek, in Greene County, Pennsylvania, from stress corrosion cracking. The resulting propane vapor cloud ignited when a truck driven into the cloud stalled, then created a spark when it was restarted. Subsidence of underground coal mines in the area may have hastened the failure.

1977 – On July 30, a cast iron gas main broke in Cherokee, Alabama. Gas migrated into a home through a recently back filled sewer line trench, and exploded 5 days later.

2+0 1977 – On September 5, 2 brothers in a moving truck drove into a vapor cloud from a leak at a gas compressor plant in New Cuyama, California, igniting the cloud. One was killed immediately, and the other died 11 days later.

0+7 1977 – A gasline inside a building in San Francisco, California leaked and exploded, injuring 7 and heavily damaging that building. Gas repair crews were working on the line at the time.

1977 – On October 12, a bulldozer ruptured a propane pipeline near Albany, Georgia, causing nearby train traffic to be halted. The bulldozer engine was left running, nearly igniting the vapors.

1977 – On November 21, a backhoe being used to install a pipeline hit an adjacent 6 inch diameter propane pipeline in Hutchison, Kansas. Fire broke out, but there were no injuries.

1977 – On December 1, construction workers punctured a 12 inch gas pipeline in Atlanta, Georgia, with an I-beam. No fire or explosion followed, but thousands of people were evacuated from nearby buildings.

2+3 1977 – On December 15, a compression coupling joint between a plastic and a steel gas line pulled apart in Lawrence, Kansas. The gas migrated into 2 buildings, and exploded, killing 2 people, and injuring 3 others.

1+0 1978 – On January 6, a ruptured 2 inch diameter gasline leaking caused a home to explode in Spokane, Washington, killing the homeowner.

1978 – On January 23, Earth movement was suspected in causing a gas transmission pipeline to rupture and burn near Stevenson, Washington. There were no injuries.

0+8 1978 – On February 15, a gas pipeline being tested with compressed air exploded at a seam on the pipe in Cincinnati, Ohio, injuring 8.

4+1 1978 – On April 28, an improperly plugged gas line leaked into service vault in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma at a shopping center, overcoming 5 gas company workers. Four of the repairmen died of asphyxiation. None of the repair crew had respirators at the job site.

1978 – On May 17, a gas company crew in Mansfield, Ohio accidentally tied a high pressure gas main into a low pressure gas main. Much higher gas flames in gas appliances caused damage in 16 homes, and about 2,000 gas meters were shut off during the incident.

3+2 1978 – On August 4, an LPG pipeline at Donnellson, Iowa, ruptured from past mechanical damage and improper lowering for road improvements. The vapor cloud ignited several minutes after the rupture. Three people were killed and 2 others severely burned.

0+6 1978 – On August 7, in Lafayette, Louisiana, natural gas at 15 psig pressure escaped from a corrosion leak in an inactive 1-inch steel service line and migrated beneath a concrete slab and into a building where it ignited. The resulting explosion and fire injured six persons and destroyed the building and its contents.

0+1 1978 – On August 28, natural gas, which had escaped from a circumferential fracture in a socket heat-fusion coupling on a 2-in. polyethylene (PE) main, operating at 40-psig pressure, migrated beneath a one-story house in Grand Island, Nebraska, exploded, and then burned. One person was injured; the house was destroyed; and three adjacent houses were damaged.

5+43 1978 – On October 24, a gas pipeline in Brookside Village, Texas ruptured and exploded, killing five people, and injuring 43 others. Seven mobile homes were also destroyed,

0+2 1979 – On January 16, an explosion and fire destroyed five commercial buildings and damaged several other buildings in London, Kentucky. Two persons were injured. External corrosion was suspected as the cause. A prearranged pressure increase in the pipeline was also a factor.

1979 – An 18 inch diameter natural gas transmission pipeline failed underneath the Florida Turnpike in West Palm Beach, Florida, resulting in a 2 hour road closure.

0+8 1979 – On April 18, a 24-inch natural gas transmission pipeline pulled out of a compression coupling during a line-lowering project under Iowa State Highway 181 in a rural area near Dallas, Iowa. Within seconds, the natural gas ignited and burned a 900-foot (270 m) by 400-foot (120 m) area. Two cars, a pickup truck, and a trailer housing construction equipment were destroyed. A backhoe was damaged and windows were broken in a nearby farmhouse. Five of the eight injured workers were hospitalized. The gas company’s accident records indicated that this 24-inch pipeline had experienced 12 previous failures since it was constructed.

7+19 1979 – On May 11, 2 explosions and a following fire killed 7 people, injured 19 others, and destroyed 3 buildings in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Soil erosion under an 8 inch cast iron gas main caused the main to break and release gas.4+0

4+0 1979 – On June 5, a “spud” dropped by a pile driving barge in the Gulf of Mexico near Pilottown, Louisiana ruptured a 4 inch diameter natural gas pipeline. The escaping gas ignited, and seriously burned the barge. 4 crew members went missing and were presumed dead.

2+0 1979 – On July 15, an anchor handling boat, PETE TIDE II, damaged an unmarked gas pipeline with a grappling hook offshore from New Orleans, Louisiana. Two of the crew were missing and presumed dead in the fire that followed.

2+2 1979 – On July 25, an explosion and fire destroyed a duplex apartment house in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two persons were killed, and two persons were hospitalized for burns; adjacent houses were damaged. Earlier in the day, a crew from Mountain Bell Telephone Company (Mountain Bell) had been using a backhoe at the intersection of Bridge Boulevard and Atrisco Road to locate a telephone cable. The backhoe snagged a gas service line but the fact that it was pulled from a 1-inch coupling under the house was not discovered at that time.

1+1 1979 – On August 20, a bulldozer operating near Orange, Texas, began to clean a farm drainage ditch. The corner of the blade cut into a propane line, which crossed beneath the ditch. Propane at 350 psig escaped and was ignited within seconds. The resulting fire killed one person and injured another, and caused considerable property damage.

1+0 1979 – On September 4, the M/V WHITEFACE struck a high-pressure gas pipeline in Lake Verret, Louisiana. A resulting explosion killed a crewman aboard the vessel.

1+1 1979 – On October 6, an explosion caused by liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapors destroyed a transformer building at the reception facility of the Columbia LNG Corporation, Cove Point, Maryland. Odorless liquefied natural gas leaked through an inadequately tightened LNG pump seal, vaporized, passed through approximately 210 feet (64 m) of underground electrical conduit and entered the substation building. One person was killed, and one person was seriously injured. Damage to the facility was estimated at about $3 million. The fire hydrants and deluge water spray system were inoperable after the explosion because the water main that supplied the system was broken at a flange above ground inside the substation.

1979 – On October 24, an explosion and fire destroyed the county clerk’s office building and the adjoining courthouse building, gutted a connecting building which was under construction, and damaged the adjacent houses in Stanardsville, Virginia. Thirteen persons were injured and property was damaged extensively. The following NTSB investigation revealed that natural gas had leaked from a break in a 1 1/4-inch coated steel service line, which had been snagged by a backhoe which was being used to dig a footing for an addition to the county clerk’s office building.

0+3 1979 – On October 30, a natural gas explosion and fire demolished a townhouse in Washington, D.C., and damaged nearby buildings and cars. No one was inside the townhouse at the time, but three persons in a stopped car were injured when debris from the explosion shattered a car window. After the accident, an inspection of the gas service line that served the townhouse revealed that it had been struck by excavating equipment.

1979 – November 11, a natural gas transmission pipeline exploded in West Monroe, Louisiana, causing 3 subdivisions to be evacuated. A gas pipeline explosion had taken place nearby 8 years before.

3+0 1980 – On February 21, an explosion and fire destroyed four stores in a shopping complex and severely damaged an adjoining restaurant in Cordele, Georgia. Of the eight persons who were injured, three died later as a result of their injuries. Property damage was extensive. The NTSB investigation of the accident has revealed that natural gas leaked from a 1-inch steel service line, which had been pulled from a 1-inch compression coupling from a backhoe working in the area, and migrated under a concrete slab floor and into a jewelry store where it was ignited by an unknown source.

1980 – On May 27, near Cartwright, Louisiana, an anhydrous ammonia pipeline was struck by a bulldozer, which was being used to prepare a well site, and the pipeline ruptured. Over 100 people were evacuated from the area.

0+1 1980 – On August 11, A road grader ruptured an NGL pipeline in Aurora, Colorado. Firefighters had barely evacuated residents in the area when the vapors exploded, burning one firefighter.

0+37 1980 – On October 9, a 2-inch-diameter compression coupling located on the upstream side of a gas meter set assembly in the boiler room of the Simon Kenton High School in Independence, Kentucky, pulled out of its connection with a 2-inch-diameter gas service line. Natural gas at 165-psig pressure escaped through the 2-inch-diameter opening and, seconds later, exploded and burned. A basement wall was blown down, an adjacent classroom was damaged, and one student was killed. About 30 minutes later, a second explosion occurred, which injured 37 persons and extensively damaged the school. The gas main was being uprated at the time.

1980 – On December 1, a pipeline carrying naphtha ruptured under a street in Long Beach, California, causing a fire that destroyed one home and damaged several others. Two people were injured. Lack of communication of pipeline valve setups, and pressure relief valves set to open at too high a pressure were identified by the NTSB as causes of the accident.

1980 – On December 1, a dirt pan machine being used for road construction hit a propane pipeline in Sumner, Georgia, causing slight injuries to the dirt pan operator. US Highway 82 and a rail line were closed, and several families evacuated until the vapors dispersed. There was no fire.

1980 – December 28, a natural gas pipeline exploded and burned at a gas plant in Ulysses, Kansas. There were no injuries.

0+5 1981 – On July 31, an ammonia pipeline leaked near Hutchinson, Kansas, injuring 5 people, including 3 children at a Bible Camp. A 2-mile (3.2 km) radius from the leak was evacuated, including 90 from the Bible Camp.

1981 – On August 25, in downtown San Francisco, California, a 16-inch natural gas main was punctured by a drill that an excavation contractor was using. Escaping natural gas blew upward and carried into the Embarcadero Complex and other nearby buildings. There was no ignition; however, the gas stream entrained an oil containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). Fall-out affected an eight-square-block area of the city’s financial district covering buildings, cars, trees, pedestrians, police, and firemen. Approximately 30,000 persons were safely evacuated from the area in 45 minutes. No one was killed or seriously injured, although many persons were sprayed with the PCB oil mist. There were delays in shutting down the gas, due to inaccurate diagrams.

0+7 1981 – On September 15, during routine maintenance, a pipeline exploded and burned between a gas plant and a petroleum plant in Goldsmith, Texas. While workers were fighting the fire, another part of the pipeline burst and burned. 6 workers were burned, and another had other injuries. There were a total of 7 fires from 7 pipeline ruptures.

4+0 1981 – On September 27, a 12 inch diameter pipeline near Ackerly, Texas, was hit by a rathole drill, releasing an ethane-propane mix. There was then an explosion & fire that killed 4 people.

1+0 1981 – On November 30, at Flatwoods, West Virginia, gas, leaking into a test section of a 26-inch-diameter gas transmission pipeline, ignited as a welder engaged in installing an end cap placed a tack weld on the east end of a 180-foot (55 m)-long section of pipe. The resultant explosion blew off-the east end cap, which struck and killed the welder’s helper.

1981 – On December 5, hunters near Yutan, Nebraska tried out a new high power rifle by shooting what they thought was a log in a creek bed. The log was actually an LPG pipeline, and 12 to 16 families needed to be evacuated for their safety from the resulting vapor cloud. There was no fire.

1981 – On December 31, a gas pipeline in Ottawa, Kansas caused 2 explosions and a raging fire that destroyed 2 mobile homes on December 31. There were no injuries reported.

0+5 1982 – On January 28, at Centralia, Missouri, natural gas at 47 psig entered a low pressure distribution system which normally operated at 0.40 psig after a backhoe bucket snagged, ruptured, and separated a 3/4-inch-diameter steel pressure regulator control line at a regulator station. The backhoe, which was owned and operated by the city of Centralia, was being used to clean a ditch located adjacent to the pressure regulator station. The high-pressure gas entering customer piping systems in some cases resulted in high pilot light flames which initiated fires in buildings; while in other cases, the pilot light flames were blown out, allowing gas to escape within the buildings. Of the 167 buildings affected by the overpressure, 12 were destroyed and 32 sustained moderate to heavy damages. Five persons received minor injuries.

1982 – On April 1, an LPG pipeline was ruptured by road construction in North Richland Hills, Texas. 800 to 1,000 nearby residents were evacuated. There was no fire. The construction crew workers said the pipeline was 5 feet (1.5 m) away from where it was shown on a map they were using.

6+0 1982 – On June 28, a natural gas explosion demolished a house, killed five persons, and critically injured one person in Portales, New Mexico; the critically injured person died later at a burn treatment center. The gas service line to the house had been damaged 37 days earlier when a contractor’s backhoe pulled up the line during conduit excavation work for the local telephone company.

0+4 1982 – On September 7, natural gas at 15 psig escaping from the open ends of a 2 1/4-inch cast-iron gas main located in a deep, narrow excavation in Dublin, Georgia, was ignited by an unknown source. Four City of Dublin gas department employees who were working in the excavation were critically burned.

0+7 1982 – On October 1, a steel plate, which had been welded by a work crew to cap temporarily the open end of a section of a 22-inch diameter gas transmission pipeline, blew off at an initial pressure of possibly 260 psig. Escaping natural gas from the pipeline, which had accumulated due to a leak in a nearby gate valve, ignited almost immediately and the entire work area and a portion of U.S. Route 65 were momentarily engulfed in flames. Seven persons who were working to replace a section of the pipeline under the road about 2 miles (3.2 km) south of Pine Bluff, Arkansas, were burned.

1+0 1982 – On October 29, a crew mechanic working on new gas service lines at Burke, Virginia, was overcome by leaking gas and died.

5+0 1982 – On November 4, a tile plow installing field drainage tile on a farm located 4 miles (6.4 km) west of Hudson, Iowa, struck and punctured a well-marked, 20-inch natural gas transmission pipeline. Natural gas escaping at about 820 psig ignited immediately, and the ensuing fire killed five persons.

3+2 1982 – On December 8, a five-member crew was working on a gas compressor at Bonicord, Tennessee, when a gas explosion occurred. All five crew members were injured seriously, but were able to evacuate the building. One crew member died later that day, and two others died a few days later.

2+3 1983 – On February 1, a corroded gas service line caused a natural gas explosion and flash fire that destroyed a house, killed two persons, and injured three persons in Pryor, Oklahoma, and damaged an adjacent house.

1983 – On August 5, a gas pipeline failed and caused a fire with flames 250 to 300 feet (91 m) tall near Marlow, Oklahoma on February 15. There were no injuries.

5+5 1983 – On March 15, an 8-inch-diameter LPG pipeline was hit by a rotating auger used for planting trees near West Odessa, Texas. After several minutes, the escaping LPG at 1,060 psi ignited, killing 5 people and injuring 5 others. Flames went as high as 600 feet into the air.

0+3 1983 – On May 21, a 36-inch-diameter gas transmission pipeline exploded and burned in Caldwell, Ohio on May 21, destroying two homes, burning 100 acres of vegetation, and closing nearby Interstate 77. There were three minor injuries.

1983 – On July 19, a 16 inch diameter gas pipeline ruptures and burned near Athens, Texas. A nearby section of the same pipeline had ruptured the year before.

1983 – On September 23, gas service pressure surged up in a section of Boston, Massachusetts. 3 major structure fires, numerous smaller fires, and an explosion at a restaurant followed. There was no serious injuries. A flooded gas regulator vault was the cause.

1984 – On February 28, 1989 – an 8 inch NGL pipeline near Hurst, Texas, was hit by a front loader, and the escaping gases ignited, causing burns to the equipment operator.

0+5 984 – On June 19, six employees of a contractor working for Washington Gas Light Company (WGL) in Rockville, Maryland, were using mechanical saws to cut a section of 22 inch diameter steel pipeline when residual gas at atmospheric pressure in the isolated section of the pipeline was ignited. A flash fire ensued, and four contractor employees who were operating the saws and a WGL superintendent were burned.

1984 – In September, two natural gas pipelines exploded and burned near Falls City, Texas.

5+7 1984 – On September 24, a failed gas main of ABS plastic caused an explosion and fire in Phoenix, Arizona. 5 people died and 7 others injured in the accident. Liquid in the pipe had caused it to break down.

1984 – On October 16, a tugboat hit and ruptured a gas pipeline on the Houston Ship Channel on October 16. There were no injuries, but the Channel was closed for a time.

5+23 1984 – On November 25, a 30-inch gas transmission pipeline, constructed in 1955 and operating at 1,000 psig pressure, ruptured at a location about three miles (5 km) west of Jackson, Louisiana. Gas blowing from the rupture fractured the pipe into many pieces and created a hole in the earth about 90 feet (27 m) long, 25 feet (7.6 m) wide, and 10 feet (3.0 m) deep. The escaping gas was quickly ignited by one of several potential sources of ignition. The resulting fire incinerated an area extending from the rupture about 950 feet (290 m) north, 500 feet (150 m) south, and 180 feet (55 m) to the east and to the west. Within this sparsely populated area, five persons involved with the pipeline construction work were killed, and 23 persons were injured. Additionally, several pieces of construction equipment were damaged extensively. Lack of proper ground support under the pipeline when a nearby section of that pipeline was upgraded and replaced was identified as a factor in the failure.

0+11 1985 – On January 8, natural gas from a leaking line traveled through soil and caused a massive gas explosion in El Paso, Texas. Eleven people were injured, 2 homes were destroyed, and 88 other homes were damaged by the blast.

2+1 1985 – On February 22, 1985, a police patrolman on routine patrol smelled strong natural gas odors in Sharpsville, Pennsylvania. A gas serviceman was ordered to the scene. Before the serviceman arrived at the site of the reported leak, the Sharpsville Inn and a connecting building exploded and burned, killing two persons. Firefighters arriving on scene moments later encountered a second, smaller explosion, which injured one firefighter. The delay in the gas serviceman getting to the incident was a contributing factor.

5+3 1985 – On April 27, a 30 inch diameter gas pipeline operating at about 960 psi, weakened by atmospheric corrosion, ruptured, and tore out about 29 feet (8.8 m) of the carrier pipe, blew apart about 16 feet (4.9 m) of a 36-inch-diameter casing pipe, blasted an opening across Kentucky State Highway 90, and cut out a pear-shaped crater approximately 90 feet (27 m) long, 38 feet (12 m) wide, and 12 feet (3.7 m) deep near Beaumont, Kentucky. 5 people were killed in one home, and 3 injured. The fireball from the incident could be seen 20 miles away.

6+14 1985 – On December 6, a natural gas explosion and fire destroyed the River Restaurant in Derby, Connecticut. Gas escaping from a broken gas main at a pressure of about 1 pound per square inch had escaped, migrated into the restaurant basement, ignited, exploded, and burned. Of the 18 persons inside the restaurant at the time, 6 were killed and 12 were injured; 1 passerby and 1 firefighter were also injured. After the accident the street adjacent to the restaurant was excavated where a 24 inch diameter sewer system had just been installed; An 87-year-old, 3-inch diameter, cast-iron natural gas main was found broken.

0+8 1986 – On February 21, a 30 inch gas pipeline ruptured due to corrosion near Lancaster, Kentucky. 3 people had serious burns, and 5 others had lesser injuries. External corrosion made worse by difficulties of Cathodic protection in rocky soil was the cause.

0+22 1986 – On March 12, a backhoe snagged a natural gas distribution line in Fort Worth, TX, causing a break that leaked gas into an unoccupied building. Later, that building exploded, injuring 22 people, destroying the unoccupied building, and damaging 40 other buildings. 57 automobiles in the unoccupied building were damaged or destroyed.

1+1 1986 – On March 13, a new water main was being installed in Chicago Heights, Illinois. While excavating, an active gas service line was snagged. Gas company crews responded to the wrong site, causing delays in getting the leaking gas line shut down. Just as crews finished closing the valve on the leaking line, the nearby house exploded and began to burn; one of the two persons inside this house was killed, and the other was injured. Two neighboring houses were damaged, and one gas company employee, two construction crew members, and four persons in the general area were injured by the explosion and subsequent fire. Although gas company personnel arrived on the scene approximately 10 minutes before the explosion and shut off the gas at the meter, neither they nor the contractor’s crew had made an effort to warn or evacuate the residents of the house.

1986 – On July 12, a gas transmission pipeline fails and burns in a compressor station near Prattville, Alabama. The fire spread by melting flange gaskets on 2 other gas transmission pipelines in the station. 4 homes and several cars were destroyed in the following fire, with flames reaching 300 feet (91 m) high. There were no injuries.

1986 – In September, petroleum products pipeline failed near Billings, Montana, causing the evacuation of nearby businesses. There was no fire.

0+14 1986 – On September 8, a pipeline failed under the Red River near Gainesville, Texas. Fumes from the pipeline sent 14 to hospitals for treatment.

1986 – On December 6, a 30 inch natural gas pipe line under Pelahatchie Bay in Mississippi exploded near the water’s edge on the north shore of the bay.

0+2 1987 – On March 26, work crew burning the remains of a house near Ladysmith, Virginia ruptured a nearby petroleum products pipeline with a bulldozer, igniting diesel fuel from the line. 2 of the worker were injured.

*1987 – On April 4, an LPG pipeline exploded at a Terminal in Iowa City, Iowa. Due to the fire spreading to a pipeline for nearby underground gas storage, residents within a 2 1/2 mile radius of the Terminal were evacuated for a time. The fire burned until April 20. The cause was an ERW seam failure in a pipeline. During a hydrostatic test of that pipeline, 20 more pipeline segment seams failed.

2+0 1987 – In July, a fishing vessel, working in shallow waters off Louisiana, the menhaden purse seiner Sea Chief, struck and ruptured an 8″ natural gas liquids pipeline operating at 480 psi. The resulting explosion killed two crew members. Divers investigating found that the pipe, installed in 1968, was covered with only 6″ of soft mud, having lost its original 3-foot (0.91 m) cover of sediments.

1+18 1987 – In August, a gas leak on a busy road in Wilmington, North Carolina suddenly ignited while while gas company workers were trying to plug that leak, burning them and firefighters on standby nearby in August. 19 people were burned, with a fire department Assistant Chief later dying from the burns he received.

1988 – In January, the rupture of a large interstate gas line at Pocono Ridge development in Lehman Township, Pennsylvania, left a crater about 8 feet (2.4 m) deep and ejected a 6-foot (1.8 m) section of pipe over the treetops before it landed 50 yards away. One hundred thirty people were evacuated. No one was injured.

0+4 1988 – On January 18, a natural gas explosion destroyed the building housing the K&W Cafeteria and the lobby of the Sheraton Motor Inn at Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Two adjoining motel wings suffered structural damage. Of the four persons in the lobby/cafeteria building at the time of the explosion, all sustained minor injuries.

1988 – On July 22, a pair of MAPCO LPG/NGL pipelines failed in an explosion south of Topeka, Kansas. 200 nearby residents had to be evacuated, and there was serious damage to US Route 75 nearby from the explosion & following fire. An ERW seam selective corrosion failure in one of the pipelines caused the failure.

0+4 1988 – On August 31, a gas company crew struck and ruptured a fitting on a 4-inch plastic gas main in Green Oaks, Illinois. While the crew was attempting to excavate a nearby valve to shut off the flow of gas, the backhoe struck an unmarked power cable. The gas ignited and four gas company employees were injured.

0+4 1988 On September 16, a natural gas explosion in Overland Park, Kansas, involved gas leaking from corrosion holes in the customer-owned line. Gas migrated underground to the house and was ignited. The house was destroyed and the four residents were injured.

1+5 1988 – On November 25, natural gas explosion and fire in Kansas City, Missouri, involving a break in a customer owned service line at a threaded joint that was affected by corrosion. One person was killed and five persons injured in the explosion that severely damaged the residence.

2+0 1989 – On February 10, a natural gas explosion and fire in Oak Grove, Missouri, involved the failure of a customer owned service line at a threaded joint. Two persons were killed and their house was destroyed in the explosion.

1+0 1989 – On March 25, a leaking gas distribution line caused an explosion in Topeka, Kansas, killing one person. This was the latest in a string of gas distribution line failures that lead to an NTSB investigation into the regional gas company. 600,000 gas services lines were replaced as a result of the investigation.

11+3 1989 – On October 3, the United States menhaden’ fishing vessel Northumberland, owned and operated by the Zapata Haynie Corporation (vessel owner), was backing and maneuvering in 9 to 11 feet (3.4 m) of water when the stern of the vessel struck and ruptured an offshore 16 inch natural gas transmission pipeline. Natural gas under 835 pounds per square inch pressure was released. An undetermined source on board the vessel ignited the gas, and within seconds, the entire vessel was engulfed in flames. The fire on the vessel burned until 4:30 a.m. on October 4, when it burned itself out. Leaking gas from the pipeline also continued to burn until the flow of gas subsided and the fire self-extinguished about 6 a.m. on October 4. 11 of 14 crew members died as a result of the accident.

1+4 1989 – On October 25, an explosion at a valve in a natural gas processing station near Evanston, Wyoming kills one worker, and injures 4 others.

1989 – On December 8, a farmer hit a propane pipeline near Butler, Illinois, forcing evacuation of that town. There was no fire.

3+0 1989 – In December, New York City Con Edison Steam Pipe exploded, rupture killing three people in the 3rd Ave./Gramercy Park area.

2+7 1990 – On March 13, a propane pipeline ruptured and burned, near North Blenheim, New York. Stress from previous work done on the pipeline caused a pipeline rupture and vapor cloud that moved downhill into a town. Two people were killed, seven persons injured, and more than $4 million in property damage and other costs resulted when the cloud ignited.

1+9 1990 On August 29, a natural gas explosion and fire destroyed two row houses and damaged two adjacent houses and three parked cars in Allentown, Pennsylvania. One person was killed, and nine people, including two firefighters, were injured. A cracked gas main, that was stressed by soil erosion from a nearby broken water line, was the cause of the gas leak.

2+24 1990 – On December 9, a gas system valve between one of Fort Benjamin Harrison Indianapolis, Indiana gas distribution systems and a discontinued steel gas system segment was inadvertently opened, allowing natural gas to enter residential buildings that had previously received their gas from the discontinued segment. Gas accumulating in Building 1025 of Harrison Village was ignited by one of many available sources, and the resulting explosion killed 2 occupants and injured 24 other persons One building was destroyed, and two were damaged.

1991 – On March 2, a ruptured propane pipeline forced the evacuation of 2,500 from several subdivisions in Richland County, South Carolina for a time. There was no fire.

1+5 1991 – On July 17, workers were removing a corroded segment of the Consumers Power Company’s (CP) 10-inch-diameter transmission line pipeline in Mapleton, Michigan. As a segment of the pipeline was being removed, natural gas at 360-psig pressure exerted about 12 tons of force on an adjacent closed valve (H-143), causing it and a short segment of connected pipe to move and separate from an unanchored compression coupling. The force of the escaping gas killed one worker (a welder), injured five other workers, and collapsed a steel pit that housed valve H-143.

2+3 1991 – On December 28, two explosions in rapid succession occurred in apartment No. 3 of a two-story, eight-apartment, wood-frame structure in Santa Rosa, California. Two people were killed and three others were injured. Fire after the explosions destroyed that apartment and three other apartments in the front of the building.

4+4 1992 – On January 17, while a gas company crew was doing routine annual maintenance work at a regulator stations in Chicago, Illinois, high-pressure gas entered a low-pressure system. The gas—under as much as 10 psig of pressure—escaped through gas appliances into homes and other buildings, where it was ignited by several unidentified sources. The resulting explosion and fires killed 4 people, injured 4, and damaged 14 houses and 3 commercial buildings.

3+21 1992 – On April 7, a salt dome cavern used to store LPG & similar products was overfilled, leading to an uncontrolled release of highly volatile liquids (HVLs) from a salt dome storage cavern near Brenham, Texas, formed a large, heavier-than-air gas cloud that later exploded. Three people died from injuries sustained either from the blast or in the following fire. An additional 21 people were treated for injuries at area hospitals. Damage from the accident exceeded $9 million.

1+3 1992 – On November 6, a natural gas explosion destroyed a house in Catskill (town), New York. The two-story wood-frame house had not had active gas service since 1969. The explosion killed a woman in the house, seriously injured her daughter, and slightly injured two children in a neighboring house. Gas had escaped from a nearby cracked gas main.

0+6 1992 – On December 3, a ruptured natural gas liquid pipeline caused a vapor cloud to drift across I-70 near Aurora, Colorado. The Cloud later ignited, burning 6 motorists.

3+3 1993 – On June 9, a cinder block duplex at in Cliffwood Beach, New Jersey, exploded as a New Jersey Natural Gas Company (NJNG) contractor was trenching in front of the building. The explosion killed 3 residents of the duplex, and seriously injured 3 others.

3+12 1993 – On July 22, a city of St. Paul Department of Public Works backhoe hooked and pulled apart a Northern States Power Company (NSP) high-pressure gas service line in St. Paul, Minnesota. An explosion and natural gas-fueled fire resulted about 20 minutes after the backhoe hooked the service line. The explosion force caused part of the building to land on and flatten an automobile traveling southwest on East Third Street, and the driver died instantly. The explosion and ensuing fire also killed an apartment occupant and a person outside the building and injured 12 people.

0+7 1993 – On August 20, an ammonia pipeline failed in Sperry, Oklahoma. 80 homes in the area were evacuated. Several people were treated for ammonia inhalation injuries.

1993 – On December 30, an explosion and fire on a gas transmission pipeline, near Mellen, Wisconsin, cut off the gas supply to 3,500 customers in the area.

1994 – On February 1, the third explosion in 7 years hit a LPG/NGL pipeline Terminal in Iowa City, Iowa. 11 workers at the Terminal escaped injury, and 6 families within 1 1/2 miles of the Terminal were evacuated. The 2 previous explosions were in 1987 and 1989.

1+>92 1994 – On March 24, the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation Natural Gas Pipeline Explosion and Fire : Previous damage caused a 36 inch diameter natural gas transmission pipeline to rupture at Edison, New Jersey. Several apartment buildings were destroyed in the massive fire. One woman died of a heart attack, and at least 93 others had minor injuries. Delays in shutting off one of the pipeline’s valves was cited as contributing to the damage.

1+66 1994 – On June 9, a 2-inch-diameter steel gas service line that had been exposed during excavation separated at a compression coupling about 5 feet (1.5 m) from the wall of a retirement home in Allentown, Pennsylvania. The escaping gas flowed underground, passed through openings in the building foundation, migrated to other floors, and exploded. The accident resulted in 1 fatality, 66 injuries, and more than $5 million in property damage.

6+6 1994 – On October 17, a natural gas explosion and fire destroyed a one-story, wood frame building in Waterloo, Iowa. The force of the explosion scattered debris over a 200-foot (61 m) radius. 6 persons inside the building died, and one person sustained serious injuries. 3 persons working in an adjacent building sustained minor injuries when a wall of the building collapsed inward from the force of the explosion. The explosion also damaged nine parked cars. A person in a vehicle who had just exited the adjacent building suffered minor injuries. Additionally, two firefighters sustained minor injuries during the emergency response. Two other nearby buildings also sustained structural damage and broken windows.

1995 – On March 6, a 26 inch diameter gas transmission pipeline ruptured and burned near Castle Rock, Washington. There were no injuries.

1995 – On March 20, a natural gas transmission pipeline leaked and burned near Chipola, Louisiana. There were no injuries reported.

1+0 1995 – On March 27, a bulldozer operator ruptured a 40 inch diameter gas transmission pipeline in Huntersville, North Carolina, causing an explosion. The operator was knocked off the bulldozer, then was run over by the driverless bulldozer.

3+1 1995 – On December 2, 3 contractors were killed, and another injured, when a vacuum used to control flammable fumes accidentally reversed during welding at a pipeline facility near McCamey, Texas.

1995 – On December 9, a bulldozer hit a 16 inch diameter gas pipeline in North Attleboro, Massachusetts, forcing evacuations of a nearby shopping mall. An estimated 40,000 people were evacuated.

2+1 1995 – On December 19, a gas explosion at a twin dwelling in Norristown, Pennsylvania, killed 2 people and injured another person. Gas had migrated from a crack in a 6 inch cast iron gas main in the street.

2+0 1996 – On August 24, q Koch butane pipeline ruptured, causing an explosion and fire, near Kemp, Texas. Two teenagers were killed after driving into the unseen butane cloud while going to report the pipeline leak. A mobile home was also destroyed by the fire. The leak was caused by external corrosion. The pipeline was only 15 years old at the time.

1996 – On October 23, in Tiger Pass, Louisiana, the crew of a Bean Horizon Corporation dredge dropped a stern spud into the bottom of the channel in preparation for dredging operations. The spud struck and ruptured a 12-inch-diameter submerged natural gas steel pipeline. The pressurized natural gas released from the pipeline enveloped the stern of the dredge and an accompanying tug, then ignited, destroying the dredge and the tug. No fatalities resulted from the accident.

1996 – On November 5, a pipeline in Murfreesboro, Tennessee was undergoing maintenance. The pipeline was returned to service, but a valve on that pipeline was accidentally left closed from the maintenance, causing pressure to rupture the pipeline.

33+69 1996 – On November 21, an explosion occurred in a shoe store and office building in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico. Thirty-three people were killed, and at least 69 were injured. Crews from the local gas provider, Enron, had not found any gas leaks previously, despite complaints of propane odor in the buildings.

1+1 1997 – On July 21, a gas pipeline rupture and fire, in Indianapolis, Indiana. A 20-inch-diameter steel natural gas transmission pipeline ruptured and released natural gas near an intersection adjoining the Charter Pointe subdivision. The gas ignited and burned, killing one resident and injuring another. About 75 residents required temporary shelter. Six homes were destroyed, and about 65 others sustained damage significant enough to be documented by the local investigation team. A nearby directional drilling operation had hit & weakened the pipeline before the failure.

1+3 1998 – On July 7 – Natural Gas Explosion and Fire, South Riding, Virginia. A natural gas explosion and fire destroyed a newly constructed residence in the South Riding community in Loudoun County, Virginia. A family consisting of a husband and wife and their two children were spending their first night in their new home at the time of the explosion. As a result of the accident, the wife was killed, the husband was seriously injured, and the two children received minor injuries. Five other homes and two vehicles were damaged.

0+5 1998 – On August 13, <i>lightning</i> struck a Florida Gas Transmission Co. natural gas compressor plant near Perry, Florida on August 13, causing an explosion and massive fire. A second explosion later followed, injuring 5 firefighters & pipeline company employees. 6 nearby homes were also destroyed.

0+4 1998 – On December 3, a natural gas liquids pipeline near Moab, Utah failed and ignited near Highway U-191, injuring 4 pipeline workers. Asphalt in the road was melted, and traffic was stopped.

4+11 1998 – On December 11, natural gas pipeline rupture and subsequent explosion, in St. Cloud, Minnesota. While attempting to install a utility pole support anchor in a city sidewalk in St. Cloud, Minnesota, a communications network installation crew struck and ruptured an underground, 1-inch-diameter, high-pressure plastic gas service pipeline, thereby precipitating a natural gas leak. About 39 minutes later, while utility workers and emergency response personnel were taking preliminary precautions and assessing the situation, an explosion occurred. As a result of the explosion, 4 persons were fatally injured; 1 person was seriously injured; and 10 persons, including 2 firefighters and 1 police officer, received minor injuries. Six buildings were destroyed. Damage assessments estimated property losses at $399,000.

1999 – On January 3 – Natural Gas Explosion and Fire at a gas pressure station, Wytheville, Virginia, destroying a home and motorcycle store.

3+6 1999 – On January 22, in Bridgeport, Alabama, while digging a trench behind a building, a backhoe operator damaged a 3/4-inch steel natural gas service line and a 1-inch water service line. This resulted in two leaks in the natural gas service line, which was operated at 35 psig. One leak occurred where the backhoe bucket had contacted and pulled the natural gas service line. The other was a physical separation of the gas service line at an underground joint near the meter, which was close to the building. Gas migrated into a building nearby, where it ignited. An explosion followed, destroying three buildings. Other buildings within a two-block area of the explosion sustained significant damage. Three fatalities, five serious injuries, and one minor injury resulted from this accident.

0+2 1999 – On November 19, 2 men were injured in Salt Flat, Texas, when a leaking 8 inch diameter propane pipeline explodes. 2 school buses had passed through the area moments before the explosion.

12+0 2000 – August 19 – A 30 inch diameter El Paso Natural Gas pipeline rupture and fire near Carlsbad, New Mexico killed 12 members of an extended Family camping over 600 feet (180 m) from the rupture point. The force of the rupture and the violent ignition of the escaping gas created a 51-foot (16 m)-wide crater about 113 feet (34 m) along the pipe. A 49-foot (15 m) section of the pipe was ejected from the crater in three pieces measuring approximately 3 feet (0.91 m), 20 feet (6.1 m), and 26 feet (7.9 m) in length. The largest piece of pipe was found about 287 feet (87 m) northwest of the crater. The cause of the failure was determined to be <i>severe internal corrosion</i> of that pipeline. On July 26, 2007, a USDOJ Consent Decree was later entered into by the pipeline owner to do pipeline system upgrades to allow better internal pipeline inspections.

2000 – September 8 – For the second time in 24 hours, a state contractor building a noise wall along the I-475 in Toledo, Ohio struck an underground pipeline, and for a second time the contractor blamed <i>faulty pipeline mapping</i> for the accident. In this incident, the pipe was a six-inch gas pipeline. The crew was digging a hole with an auger for a noise-wall support on September 8, when it hit the underground pipe less than 500 meters from the previous day’s incident.

1+0 2000 – On September 7, a Bulldozer ruptured a 12 inch diameter NGL pipeline on Rt. 36, south of Abilene, Texas. An Abilene police detective, with 21 years of service, was severely burned and later died. Nearby, a woman saved herself by going underwater in her swimming pool. Her house was destroyed by the explosion & fire. The owner of the pipeline, ExxonMobil, was later fined by the Texas Railroad Commission for the pipeline not being marked.

2001 – On March 22, a 12-inch natural gas pipeline exploded in Weatherford, Texas. No one was injured, but the blast created a hole in the ground about 15 feet (4.6 m) in diameter and the explosion was felt several miles away.

2001 – On May 1, a 10 inch diameter propane pipeline exploded and burned in Platte County, Missouri.

0+>10 2001 – On June 13, in Pensacola, Florida, at least ten persons were injured when two natural gas lines ruptured and exploded after a parking lot gave way beneath a cement truck at a car dealership. The blast sent chunks of concrete flying across a four-lane road, and several employees and customers at neighboring businesses were evacuated. About 25 cars at the dealership and 10 boats at a neighboring business were damaged or destroyed.

2001 – On July 24, a pipeline ruptures and spreads burning gasoline near Manheim, Pennsylvania.

2001 – On August 11, at approximately 5:05 a.m. MST, a 24 inch gas pipeline failed near Williams, Arizona, resulting in the release of natural gas. The natural gas continued to discharge for about an hour before igniting.

2002 – On March 15, a failure occurred on a 36 inch gas pipeline near Crystal Falls, Michigan. The failure resulted in a release of gas, which did not ignite, that created a crater 30 feet (9.1 m) deep, 30 feet (9.1 m) wide, and 120 feet (37 m) long. There were no deaths or injuries.

2002 – On June 20, PHMSA ordered ordered Columbia Gas Transmission Company to do extensive repair to one of their gas transmission pipelines in the states of Pennsylvania & New York after finding extensive wall thin on sections of that pipeline caused by external corrosion. Approximately 800 anomalies with wall thickness losses of greater than 65 percent were found during a smart pig examination, with 76 of the found anomalies having a <i>wall thickness loss of greater than 80 percent</i>. Many of the affected sections of pipe were older sections lacking coating, which is known to reduce external corrosion on pipelines.

2002 – On August 5, a natural gas pipeline exploded and caught fire west of Rt. 622, on Poca River Road near Lanham, West Virginia. Emergency workers evacuated three or four families. Kanawha and Putnam Counties in the area were requested Shelter-In-Place. Parts of the Pipeline were thrown hundreds of yards away, around, and across Poca River. The Fire was not contained for several hours because valves to shutdown line did not exist. The Orange Glow from the fire at 11 PM; could be seen for several miles.

2003 – On February 2, a natural gas pipeline ruptured near Viola, Illinois, resulting in the release of natural gas which ignited. A l6-foot long section of the pipe fractured into three sections, which were ejected to distances of about 300 yards from the failure site.

2003 – On March 23, a 24 inch diameter gas pipeline near Eaton, Colorado exploded. The explosion sent flames 160 meters in the air and sent thousands of Weld County residents into a panic, but no one was injured. The heat from the flames melted the siding of two nearby homes and started many smaller grass fires.

2003 – On May 1, a 26 inch diameter natural gas transmission pipeline failed near Lake Tapps, Washington. A neighboring elementary school, a supermarket, and 30 to 40 homes in approximately a 4-mile (6.4 km) area were evacuated. There was no fire or injuries. Land movement was suspected, and had caused 4 previous failures on this pipeline in the previous 8 years.

2003 – On May 8, an 8 inch diameter LPG pipeline failed near Lebanon, Ohio. About 80 homes and one school in the area were evacuated. There was no fire or injuries.

2003 – On May 21, a 30 inch diameter gas pipeline exploded and burned near Nederland, Texas.

0+13 2003 – On July 2, excavation damage to a natural gas distribution line resulted in an explosion and fire in Wilmington, Delaware. A contractor hired by the city of Wilmington to replace sidewalk and curbing, dug into an unmarked natural gas service line with a backhoe. Although the service line did not leak where it was struck, the contact resulted in a break in the line inside the basement of a nearby building, where gas began to accumulate. A manager for the contractor said that he did not smell gas and therefore did not believe there was imminent danger and that he called an employee of the gas company and left a voice mail message. At approximately 1:44p.m., an explosion destroyed two residences and damaged two others to the extent that they had to be demolished. Other nearby residences sustained some damage, and the residents on the block were displaced from their homes for about a week. Three contractor employees sustained serious injuries. Eleven additional people sustained minor injuries.

2003 – On September 26, A propane pipeline at the Phillips Petroleum storage facility in Cahokia, Illinois ruptured, sending flames high into the air and sparking small grass fires in the area.

2003 – On November 2, a Texas Eastern Transmission natural gas pipeline exploded in Bath County, Kentucky, about 1.5 km south of a Duke Energy pumping station. A fire burned for about an hour before firefighters extinguished it. No one was injured and no property damage was reported.

2+0 2004 – On August 21, a natural gas explosion destroyed a residence located at in DuBois, Pennsylvania. Two residents were killed in this accident. The NTSB determined that the probable cause of the leak, explosion, and fire was the fracture of a defective butt-fusion joint.

2004 – On September 26, a vandal started up a trackhoe at a construction site in New Caney, Texas, and dug into a propylene pipeline. The escaping propylene ignited, causing nearby residents to evacuate. There were no injuries reported.

2004 – On September 27, 2004, near Blair, Nebraska, an ammonia pipeline failed, releasing 193,213 pounds of ammonia.

2004 – On November 1, a construction crew ruptured a high-pressure gas line in Little Rock, Arkansas1, near one of the state’s busiest intersections Monday, triggering a fire that melted traffic lights that hung overhead. No one was injured.

0+9 2004 – On November 8, a NGL pipeline failed in a housing division in Ivel, Kentucky. The vapor cloud from the leak ignited, seriously burning a Kentucky State Trooper evacuating those living in the area. 8 others were injured and 5 homes were destroyed. The pipeline had 11 previous corrosion failures, and is only 65 miles (105 km) long.

2004 – On December 52, employees were performing maintenance on a propane pipeline near Mantador, North Dakota on December 15, when a gasket on the pipeline’s valve failed, causing a leak. Nearby resident were evacuated, and a rail line was shut down temporarily. There were no injuries.

0+2 2005 – On May 13, an underground natural gas pipeline exploded near Marshall, Texas, sending a giant fireball into the sky and hurling a 160-foot (49 m) section of pipe onto the grounds of a nearby electric power generating plant. 2 people were hurt. The OPS concluded that stress corrosion cracking was the culprit.

1+0 2005 – On September 19, a pipeline pumping station employee was killed in Monroe, Ohio, when leaking propane was ignited and exploded by an arcing pump. Flames reached 300 feet (91 m) high in the following fire.

0+1 2005 – On December 6, a natural gas compressor station exploded near Rifle, Colorado, about 200 yards from Interstate 70. There was only one minor injury to a nearby truck driver.

3+4 2005 – On December 13, workers removing an underground oil tank in Bergenfield, New Jersey undermined a 1 1/4 inch steel gas pipeline. The gas line later failed, causing an explosion. Three residents of a nearby apartment building were killed. Four other residents and a tank removal worker were injured. Failure to evacuate the apartment building after the gas line ruptured was listed as a contributing factor.

2006 – In January or February, a gas compressor station explosion severely burned a worker, and set off a raging fire near DeBeque, Colorado. A second explosion at that site soon after caused no injuries.

2006 – On July 22, a Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company gas transmission pipeline ruptured, resulting in an estimated release of 42,946,000 cu ft (1,216,100 m3) of natural gas near Clay City in Clark County, Kentucky. The gas ignited, but there were no injuries, and just minor property damage. <i>External corrosion</i> was suspected.

1+0 2006 – On November 11, a jet-black, 300-acre (1.2 km2) burn site surrounded the skeletal hulk of a bulldozer that struck a natural-gas pipeline, and produced a powerful explosion 2 miles (3.2 km) north of the Wyoming-Colorado line. The bulldozer operator was killed.

2007 – On July 18 – 2007 New York City steam explosion.

0+>300 2007 – On early October 18, a ethylene pipeline explosion was heard for miles around Port Arthur, Texas, waking residents. The following fire spread to a nearby butadiene, causing it to rupture & burn. Later, over 300 residents sued the pipeline’s owners for health issues claimed to be caused from the chemicals released by the accident. <i>External corrosion</i> of the ethylene pipeline caused the first pipeline failure.

2+5 2007 – On November 1, a 12 inch diameter propane pipeline explodes, killing two and injuring five others near Carmichael, Mississippi on November 1. The NTSB determined the probable cause was likely an <i>ERW seam failure</i>. Inadequate education of residents near the pipeline about the existence of a nearby pipeline and how to respond to a pipeline accident were also cited as a factors in the deaths.

2007 – On November 12, three teen boys drilled into an ammonia pipeline in Tampa Bay, Florida, causing an ammonia leak, and later claimed they did it due to stories of money being hidden inside that pipeline. The leak took 2 days to be capped. One of the teens had serious chemical burns from the ammonia. Residents within a half miles from the leak were evacuated. PHMSA later noted the pipeline company failed to adequately pre-plan for emergencies with the local Fire Agency, as required by CFR.

2008 – On February 5, a natural gas pipeline compressor station exploded and caught fire near Hartsville, Tennessee, and was believed to have been caused by a <i>tornado</i> hitting the facility.

2008 – On February 15, a 20 inch gas pipeline exploded and burned in Hidalgo County, Texas, closing road FM490.

2008 – On August 28, a 36 inch diameter gas pipeline failed near Stairtown, Texas, causing a fire with flames 400 feet (120 m) tall. The failure was caused by <i>external corrosion</i>.

2008 – On August 29, a 24 inch gas transmission pipeline ruptured in Cooper County, Missouri. Corrosion had caused the pipeline to <i>lose 75% of its wall thickness</i> in the failure area.

0+2 2008 – On September 9, workers constructing a new pipeline hit an existing natural gas pipeline in Wheeler County, Texas. 2 workers were burned by this accident.

2008 – On September 14, a 30 inch diameter gas pipeline ruptured & gas ignited near Appomattox, Virginia. 2 homes were destroyed by the fire. <i>External corrosion</i> was the cause of the failure.

2008 – On the night of November 15, a gas compressor for a pipeline at an entry exploded & burned near Godley, Texas. The fire spread to another company’s gas compressor station next to it. A 24 inch diameter gas pipeline had to be shut down to stop the fire. There were no injuries, and damages were estimated at 2 million dollars.

2009 – On January 15, an accidental massive gas release at Pump Station 1 of the trans-Alaskan pipeline (Alyeska Pipeline Service Company) threatened the site at the time. The company that runs the pipeline acknowledges a fire or explosion, had the gas ignited, could have imperiled the station’s 60-plus workers and caused “an extended shutdown” of oil fields. There was no ignition or explosion. The incident occurred as BP workers used a <i>cleaning device called a pig</i> to swab oil out of an old pipeline the company was preparing to decommission. The pipe, 34 inches in diameter, was among major Prudhoe trunk lines found in 2006 to be <i>ravaged with corrosion</i>, due to BP’s admitted <i>lack of proper maintenance</i>. A large volume of gas then bypassed the pig somehow, and rushed to Pump Station 1, a key asset through which every drop of oil coming off the North Slope must pass.

2009 – On February 1, a gas pipeline explosion rocked the area 2 miles (3.2 km) east of Carthage, Texas.

0+2 2009 – On May 4, a gas pipeline bursts near Hobe City, Florida, injuring 2 people on the Florida Turnpike from flying debris. The escaping gas did not ignite.

2009 – On May 6, a natural gas pipeline explodes and catches fire near Rockville, IN in Parke County, about 24 miles (39 km) north of Terre Haute, Indiana. PHMSA indicated the possibility of <i>external corrosion</i> in its Corrective Action Order (CAO) to the pipeline company. Pictures have been released around the area showing the damage caused. 49 homes were evacuated in a one-mile (1.6 km) area of the explosion. No injuries reported.

2009 – On October 7, a leaking pipeline carrying jet fuel was accidentally ignited by a pipeline repair crew in Upton County, Texas.

0+2 2009 – On November 5, Bushland, Texas, two people were hurt when a El Paso Natural Gas pipeline exploded in the Texas Panhandle. The explosion on early Thursday, November 5, left a hole about 30 yards by 20 yards and close to 15 feet (4.6 m) deep. The blast shook homes, melted window blinds and shot flames hundreds of feet into the air. The home nearest the blast — about 100 yards away- was destroyed, and 3 residents from that homes were injured. About 200 residents in the area were evacuated. Bushland is in Potter County, about 15 miles (24 km) west of Amarillo. The failure was in an abandoned tap, but the exact failure reason remains unknown.

2009 – On Novemebr 14, a fire at a gas compressor station near Cameron, West Virginia slightly burns one employee, and causes $5.6 million of damage to the facility.

2009 – On Novemeber 14, a newly built 42 inch gas transmission pipeline near Philo, Ohio failed on the second day of operation. There was no fire, but evacuations resulted. Several indications of pipe deformation were found.

1+0 2010 – In January, a gas pipeline exploded near Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana, killing a pipeline employee.

2010 – On February 1, a plumber trying to unclog a sewer line in St. Paul, Minnesota ruptured a gas service line that has been “cross bored” through the house’s sewer line. The plumber & resident escape the home moments before as an explosion & following fire destroyed the home. The Minnesota Office of Pipeline Safety ordered that gas utility, Xcel, to check for more cross bored gas lines. In the following year, 25,000 sewer lines inspected showed 57 other cross bored gas lines. In Louisville, Kentucky, 430 gas line cross bores were found in 200 miles (320 km) of a sewer project, including some near schools and a hospital. The NTSB had cited such <i>cross bore</i> incidents as a known hazard since 1976.

2010 – On March 15, a 24 inch diameter gas pipeline bursts, but did not ignite near Pampa, Texas.

1+6 2010 – On June 7, a 36 inch diameter gas pipeline explosion and fire in Johnson County, Texas, was caused by workers installing poles for electrical lines. One worker killed, and six were injured. Confusion over the location and status of the construction work lead to the <i>pipeline not being marked beforehand</i>.

2+0 2010 – On June 8, construction workers hit an unmarked 14 inch gas gathering pipeline near Darrouzett, Texas. Two workers were killed.

0+1 2010 – On August 24, a gas compressor station in Shongaloo, Louisiana on August 24 injured 1 worker.

0+1 2010 – On August 25, a construction crew installing a gas pipeline in Roberts County, Texas hits an unmarked pipeline on August 25, seriously burning one man.

2010 – On August 27, a LPG pipeline sprang a leak in Gilboa, New York, forcing the evacuation of 23 people.

4+>51 2010 – On September 9, a natural gas pipeline in San Bruno, California, exploded, killing 4, injuring at least 52 and levelled dozens of homes.

1+3 2010 – On September 28, a repair crew was working on a <i>corroded</i> gas pipe in Cairo, Georgia, when the line exploded. One crew member was killed, and 3 others burned.

2010 – On October 15, a gas pipeline under construction in Grand Prairie, Texas was running a cleaning pig without a pig “trap” at the end of the pipe. The 150 pound pig was expelled from the pipeline with enough force to fly 500 feet (150 m), and crash through the side of a house. No one was injured.

0+3 2010 – On November 12, three men working on natural gas lines were injured when a pipeline ruptured in Monroe, Louisiana.

2010 – On November 30, a Tennessee Gas Pipeline 30 inch diameter gas pipeline failed at Natchitoches, Louisiana. There was no fire, but the pipeline had a Magnetic Flux smart pig test earlier in the year that indicated no flaws in the pipeline. The failure was at a crack in a wrinkle bend. The deadly 1965 gas pipeline accident occurred on a different pipeline owned by the same company nearby.
2010 – On December 17, a gas line fire and explosion just outside of Corpus Christi, Texas city limits leaves one person critically injured. A man was working on removing an abandoned pipeline when it exploded, and the man’s face was severely burned.

2010 – On December 28, a pipeline at an underground gas storage facility in Covington County, Mississippi, forcing the evacuation of about 2 dozen families for over a week.

1+6 2011 – On January 18, a gas main being repaired in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania explodes, killing a repair crew member and injuring 6 others.

2011 – On January 24, gas pressure regulators failed and caused a gas pressure surge in Fairport Harbor, Ohio, causing gas fires in 11 homes, and one apartment. 150 gas appliances were damaged or destroyed, but there were no injuries.

5+0/3+23 2011 – On February 9, 5 people are killed, and 8 homes were destroyed in an apparent gas explosion and fire in Allentown, Pennsylvania. The NTSB had warned UGI about cast iron gas mains needing replacement after the 1990 gas explosion in that city. Between 1976 and the date of the letter, July 10, 1992, two more gas explosions occurred. Three people were killed, 23 injured and 11 homes were destroyed or damaged in those explosions. UGI was cited in 2012 for several safety violations, including a lack of valves on their gas system.

2011 – On February 10, a Tennessee Gas Pipeline 36 inch diameter gas transmission pipeline exploded & burned near Lisbon, Ohio. No injuries resulted. The cause was from <i>stress on a girth weld</i> on the pipeline. A failure on another girth weld on the pipeline system led to a PHMSA Consent Agreement.

2011- On March 17, a 20-inch steel natural gas line running through a Minneapolis, Minnesota neighborhood ruptured and gas from it ignited, caused evacuations to buildings nearby, and Interstate 35W was closed from downtown Minneapolis to Highway 62. There were no injuries.

2011 – On July 20, a six month old 30 inch diameter natural gas pipeline exploded near Gillette, Wyoming, creating a 60-foot (18 m) crater. There was no fire, nor any injuries.

2011 – On August 31, a Cupertino, California condominium was gutted after a plastic pipeline fitting cracked, filling the garage with natural gas that exploded just minutes after the owner left for lunch. PG&E later found six other plastic pipe failures near the blast site. The line was an especially problematic type of pipe manufactured by DuPont called Aldyl-A. PG&E has 1,231 miles (1,981 km) of the early-1970s-vintage pipe in its system. Federal regulators singled out pre-1973 Aldyl-A starting in 2002 as being at risk of failing because of premature cracking. Explosions caused by <i>failed Aldyl-A and other types of plastic pipe</i> have <i>killed more than 50 people in the United States since 1971</i>, the federal government says.

2011 – On November 3, early, an explosion and fire hit a gas transmission pipeline compressor station near Artimas, Pennsylvania. There were no injuries.

0+2 2011 – On November 16, a Tennessee Gas Pipeline 36 inch diameter gas transmission pipeline exploded and burned near Glouster, Ohio. There were 2 people injured, with 2 homes and a barn destroyed, and 2 more homes and a barn damaged. The pipeline failed at a girth weld.

1+5 2011 – On November 21, a crew working on a waterline hit a gas distribution pipeline in Fairborn, Ohio, leading to a gas explosion that killed one man, and injured 5 others, including children.

2011 – On November 21, late, a Tennessee Gas Pipeline 24 inch diameter gas transmission pipeline exploded and burned near Batesville, Mississippi. 20 homes were evacuated for a time, but there were no injuries or major property damage. The pipeline failed at a sleeve over a wrinkle bend installed in 1946.

2011 – On December 3, a Williams-Transco gas transmission pipeline exploded and burned in Marengo County, Alabama. A 47 foot section of the pipe was hurled more than 200 feet from the failure area. The gas burned for several hours, and a nearby pipeline was damaged. There were no injuries, or serious property damage. <i>External corrosion</i> was the cause of the failure, due to issues with the pipeline coating, the cathodic protection level, and the local soil corrosiveness.

0+2 2011 – On December 6, explosions & fire erupted at a natural gas pipeline compressor station in Sublette County, Wyoming. Two workers were injured.

2011 – On December 10, a 42 inch diameter natural gas transmission pipeline failed and ignited at a valve in Cache County, Utah.

2012 – On Janaury 2, evening, a gas pipeline exploded & burned in Estill County, Kentucky. Flames were reported reaching over <i>1,000 feet high</i>. Residents up to a mile away from the failure were evacuated. There were no injuries.

2012 – On January 7, a forest fire caused a gas pipeline to explode and burn in Floyd County, Kentucky. There were no injuries from this incident.

1+0 2012 – On January 9, a man was feared dead from a fiery house explosion that leaking gas was suspected to have caused in Austin, Texas. Gas had been smelled in the area for several weeks. Gas company crews had looked along the affected property for a leak, but were unable to find it, and were going to perform more checking for the leak in the future.

2012 – On January 13, an 8 inch diameter gas pipeline exploded and burned in a vacant agricultural field in Rio Vista, California. There were no injuries or evacuations.

2012 – ON January 14, a Tennessee Gas Pipeline gas compressor had a major leak “that sounded like a rocket” in Powell County, Kentucky, forcing evacuations of nearby residents. There was no fire or injuries reported.

0+4 2012 – On January 16, a contractor excavating for a communications company caused a massive gas explosion and fire at a condominium complex in West Haverstraw, New York, injuring 2 firefighters & 2 utility workers. Afterwards, it was found that the excavator’s insurance will be insufficient to cover all of the property damage of the incident.

1+0 2012 – On January 30, workers in Topeka, Kansas were installing a yard sprinkler system, hit a gas line. Gas from the leak later on exploded in a nearby home, burning a 73 year old woman, who died several weeks later.

2012 – On February 13, a 30 inch diameter gas transmission pipeline burst near Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Residents in the area were evacuated for a time, but there was no fire.

2012 – On March 5, a leak at an Enid, Oklahoma pipeline storage spread propane fumes in the area, forcing evacuations. There was no fire or explosion.

2012 – On March 29, an explosion and fire destroyed an engine building in a gas pipeline compressor station in Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. There were no injuries.

2012 – On March 29, an employee accidentally left a valve open during maintenance work on a gas compressor station near Springville, Pennsylvania. Later, gas leaked through the valve, causing alarms to evacuate workers in the compressor building. Later, the gas exploded and burned. There were no injuries. It was also found there are no agencies enforcing rules on rural gas facilities in that state.

2012 – On April 4, a 12 inch diameter gas pipeline exploded and burned for 5 hours near Gary, Texas. There were no injuries, but the rupture site was only 200 feet from that pipeline’s compressor station.

0+2 2012 – On April 6, 2 gas company workers were mildly burned when attempting to fix a leak on a 4 inch diameter gas pipeline leak in DeSoto County, Tennessee. The pipeline exploded & burned during the repairs.

2012 – On April 9, a gas pipeline exploded and burned in Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana. The accident was reported first by a satellite monitoring the area to the NRC. There were no injuries.

0+2 2012 – On April 25, two men escaped with only minor burns after a bulldozer they were using hit a 24 inch diameter gas pipeline near Hinton, Iowa. Authorities later announced the men did not call 811 for an underground utility locate.

2012 – On June 8, near Canadian, Texas, a trackhoe operator suffered burns, after residual gas from a gas gathering pipeline undergoing maintenance entered the engine of the trackhoe and ignited.

(The above information was mainly from Wikipedia.)

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Anthony Marr, Founder and President
Heal Our Planet Earth (HOPE)
Global Anti-Hunting Coalition (GAHC)
Anthony-Marr@HOPE-CARE.org
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100 Causes for 100 Spills


100 Causes for 100 Pipeline Oil-Spills

I would shudder to put Exxon and Yellowstone in the same sentence, especially when “oil spill” is in there as well, but Murphy’s Law rules again.
Same for putting Enbridge and Kinder Morgan in the same sentence with British Columbia. Murphy’s Law will always rule. See the following latest examples:
2004 – On November 9, in Walnut Creek, California, a petroleum pipeline carrying gasoline to San Jose, California, owned and operated by Kinder Morgan Energy Partners (KMEP) was struck by a backhoe… A massive gasoline spill was subsequently ignited, resulting in an explosive fireball that caused the deaths, by burns, of four workers and one supervisor and the severe injury of five others…

2007 – On November 27, an oil pipeline owned by Enbridge exploded in Clearbrook, Minnesota, during repairs, causing the deaths of two employees… Enbridge was cited for failing to safely and adequately perform maintenance and repair activities…

2010 – On July 26, Enbridge reported that a 30-inch (760 mm) pipeline had burst in Marshall, Michigan. The company estimates over 800,000 US gallons (3 million litres) of crude oil had leaked into Talmadge Creek, a waterway that feeds the Kalamazoo River, which is a gross underestimation, since EPA reports over 1,139,569 gallons of oil have been recovered as of November 2011…

Last but not least, the worst blasphemy against the ecological Holy of holies:

2011 – On July 2, ExxonMobil spilled an estimated 1500 barrels of crude oil into the Yellowstone River in south-central Montana. Some residents of Laurel, Montana had to be evacuated. The break near Billings fouled the riverbank and forced municipalities and irrigation districts to close intakes. Evacuation starting about 12:15 a.m. Saturday due to concerns about possible explosions and the overpowering fumes of petroleum and benzene… high water flow in the Yellowstone River may have scoured the river bed and exposed the pipe…

The above are just 4 pipeline oil-spills out of the hundreds since pipeline oil-spills began, the notable ones being listed below. When you go through them, please pay special attention to their causes. You will see that it is not one-cause-fits-all, not even ten causes. Take a glance at this list first:

– runaway horse
– longitudinal welded seam failures
– flooding
– 60-70 defects in one line
– bulldozer
– valve failure
– trench digging machine
– defective welds
– front loader
– pile-driver
– previous damage
– stuck relief valve
– shooting
– cracks from welding
– explosives
– leaky system
– improper sampling procedures
– failed gasket
– starting against a closed valve
– closed valve that should be open
– pipeline damage during installation
– previous mechanical damage
– over-pressurization
– improperly assembled compression coupling
– workers not following the proper procedures
– hit in a valve by a front loader
– stress corrosion cracking
– subsidence of underground coal mines
– design and operating deficiencies
– earth movement
– explosive device
– improper lowering
– accidental boring
– lightning strike
– lightning caused computer malfunction
– cracked girth weld
– delay in shutting down the pipeline
– electrical resistance welded (ERW) seam failure
– pipeline segment seam failure
– too shallow soil cover
– ERW seam selective corrosion failure
– electrical interference to Cathodic protection from other pipelines
– ERW seam fatigue crack
– damage from train derailment cleanup
– overstress due to landslide
– prior excavation damage
– reservoir overfilled
– struck by flood debris
– delay in shutting off valve after rupture
– lightning strike shutting valve
– operators ignoring alarm from pipeline’s SCADA system
– valve wrongly open or closed
– calculation error
– pipeline buckled and cracked
– material toughness – lack of
– failed gasket on an interface detector
– dent in the pipe
– a break in a miter bend in the pipe
– corrosion-fatigue cracking
– preexisting weld defect
– loss of pipe coating integrity
– release was not discovered and addressed
– severe internal corrosion
– faulty pipeline mapping
– pipeline not being marked
– flowed for two hours before stopping
– frost
– hole in the pipeline caused by high-voltage arcing
– wall thickness loss of >80% caused by corrosion
– cracking caused by train shipping and delivery
– failed gasket on a block valve
– line was corroded
– vandalism
– terrorism
– misinterpretation of fact
– misread an as built map
– incorrectly marked the pipeline’s route
– leak detection system not effective
– hit by construction equipment
– ruptured filet weld
– pipeline company failed to detect and stop the leak within 24 hours
– internal corrosion
– accidental drilling into pipeline
– lack of proper maintenance
– pinhole leak
– pressure regulator failure
– stress on a girth weld
– drag racing collision
– depth of soil coverage
– local soil corrosiveness
– etc.

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My point is: They can’t say, “Well, we have better pipes now, so there won’t be any more spills,” because all the other factors, especially human error, are still very much in play, and new factors emerge as climate change unfolds.  Give me one reason why the Enbridge and Kinder Morgan pipelines should go ahead in BC, and I will give you 100 reasons why not.

Following is a list of major pipeline oil-spill disasters in the United States since 1930, which contains all the above causes:1930 – On May 24, a runaway horse smashed a wagon of lumber against a crude oil pipeline in Ripon, Wisconsin. The oil ignited and spread to nearby oil tanks, causing a blaze that destroyed a number of buildings.1936 – On November 21, a pipeline serving a loading dock in Port Arthur, Texas, ruptured and ignited. The burning oil killed 3 people, and injured 6 others.1939 – On August 12, residents of Crawfordsville, Indiana saw oil spraying into the air, and thought it was an oil well gusher. It was actually an oil pipeline that had failed. There was no fire.1939 – On December 12, a pipeline being tested ruptured for 40 miles (64 km), near Wichita Falls, Texas, injuring one person.1940 – On June 19, a crude oil pipeline leaks oil into Swan Creek near Toledo, Ohio. Farm employees in the area set the oil on fire to eliminate it.

1943 – On May 18, flooding along the Arkansas River broke the “Big Inch” pipeline near Little Rock, Arkansas. It took almost 7 days to build a pipeline bypass around the failed area.

1943 – On August 31, The Office of the Petroleum Administrator for War Secretary Ickes denied allegations that a series of breaks in the “Big Inch” pipeline were due to design flaws. Later, it was noted that this pipeline had a number of longitudinal welded seam failures.

1943 – The “Big Inch” crude oil pipeline extension broke for the fifth time, this time in Lansdale, Pennsylvania, on September 5. The crude caught fire.

1943 – The “Big Inch” pipeline suffers its seventh leak to that pipeline, or it’s branches, on September 19,

1943 – On December 3, the “Big Inch” broke near Okeana, Ohio.

1944 – On January 7, the “Big Inch” pipeline ruptures and spills crude oil in Linden, New Jersey.

1944 – On January 9 it was announced that the completion of the “Little Big Inch” pipeline was delayed by 2 months, due to 60 to 70 defects being found in that pipeline system.

1944 – The “Big Inch” crude oil pipeline ruptures in Connellsville, Pennsylvania, with the crude spill killing fish along a 12-mile (19 km) stretch of the Laurel Hill creek.

1948 – On February 28, crude oil spilled from a ruptured pipeline leading to storage tank in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Some teen boys in the area saw crude oil bubbling out of manhole covers, and thought that igniting the oil would be a good idea. This caused a string of sewer explosions, causing manhole covers to fly 10 feet (3.0 m) into the air.

1950 – On March 13, an overhead pipeline at a refinery in Martinez, California leaked, causing flammable fumes to spread onto a highway. An automobile ignited the fumes, killed a woman, and injuring 2 other in vehicle. 3 auto were also burned.

1950 – A series of hydrostatic tests on the “Big Inch” pipeline led to 70 ruptures of that pipeline in the New Jersey area.

1950 – On September 8, a bulldozer ruptured a 6 inch pipeline in Baldwin, Pennsylvania on September 8, causing gasoline to spray 50 feet into the air, and onto homes. Firefighters had to house down a wide area to disperse the gasoline. There was no fire or injuries.

1951 – Two men welding on a crude oil pipeline at an oil Terminal in Kansas City, Kansas were severely burned on January 7, when a nearby valve failed, and sprayed them with crude oil that ignited. Both later died of their burns.

1952 – On December 29, twelve persons were injured in a blast that shook the Lawndale district of Los Angeles, California, when a ditching machine broke a gasoline-carrying pipeline and touched off a fiery explosion.

***1953 – Five square miles of east Boston, Massachusetts was evacuated on September 9 from a pipeline leaking about 1,000,000 US gallons (3,800,000 L) of gasoline.

1954 – A leaking LP gas distribution line was blamed for causing an explosion in Goldsboro, North Carolina on April 12 that killed 5 people, injured 15 others, and demolished 3 buildings. The LPG distribution system was 40 to 50 years old, and had other leaks in that city.

**1955 – A burst pipeline at a Refinery in Sunburst, Montana contaminated groundwater and soil in the area. Despite pumping out over 182,000 US gallons (690,000 L) of gasoline, pollution from the accident remained. In 2004, local residents and a school district won a Lawsuit for payments for damages.

*1955 – A drag line operation in a gravel pit in Irving, Texas ruptured an 8 inch diameter gasoline pipeline on November 30. Gasoline spread out over about 10 acres (40,000 m2), then exploded and burned.

1956 – A trench digging machine being used in building a freeway cut into a gasoline pipeline in West Los Angeles, California on February 27. At least 3 people were burned, with 9 homes, a warehouse, and a laundry caught fire.

1958 – On October 4, a gasoline pipeline was ruptured by a bulldozer in Hobbs, New Mexico. The gasoline ignited, injuring 3 people, damaging 6 homes, and threatened a number of other homes for a time.

*1958 – On November 9, a jet fuel pipeline ruptured near the Blue Creek in Idaho. Fuel flowed down the creek, and later ignited, damaging one home and destroying 6 bridges. Several were sicked by the fumes made by the incident.

*1959 – A 20 inch diameter gasoline pipeline burst near Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania on April 29, spilling gasoline into fishing streams and fields. The pipeline had recently been built.

1959 – A worker on gas transmission pipeline was closing a valve, when it exploded near Newton, Pennsylvania on September 25. The worker was killed, and another worker was injured.

1959 – A cleaning device apparently ruptured a 10 inch diameter NGL pipeline, south of Austin, Texas, on October 8. 300 to 400 people were evacuated. The gas eventually dissipated safely.

1961 – On October 9, vapors from a leaking pipeline on an oil storage tank exploded and burned in Bridgeport, Illinois. 4 oil company workers were killed, and 3 others injured.

1962 – On September 11, an 8 inch propane/LPG pipeline was ruptured by road building equipment near Eatonton, Georgia. One of the road workers was overcome and asphyxiated by the propane fumes. Propane fumes followed the Oconee River for 10 miles (16 km) into Lake Sinclair.

1963 – On November 17, flammable liquids leaking from a pipeline disposal pit were accidentally ignited, killing a teen planning to cook alongside a creek in South Carolina.

**1964 – On October 29, a crude oil pipeline ruptured in Gilbertown, Alabama. More than 72,000 US gallons (270,000 L) of oil were spilled.

*1965 – On April 3, a crude oil pipeline ruptured east of Blanding, spilling about 5,000 barrels (790 m3) of crude oil into the San Juan River. The ruptured pipeline was reported to flow “wide open” for over an hour.

1965 – On August 23, 8 inch diameter gasoline pipeline ruptured in Sylvania, Ohio. The danger of fire or explosion forced evacuations of residents in a 2-square-mile (5.2 km2) area. There was no fire.

1965 – On October 25, a ruptured pipeline spilled naphtha in Mount Cory, Ohio, forcing evacuations until the naphtha evaporated.

1967 – Manufacturers Light and Heat Company announced they were requesting to the Federal Power Commission permission to allow a new pipeline to replace 73.5 miles of older pipeline, which was having 200 to 450 leaks a year in Eastern Pennsylvania.

***1967 – On June 30, a leaking pipeline released 30,000 barrels (4,800 m3) of JP-4 grade jet fuel in Wilmington, California. There was no fire.

1968 – On January 27, a petroleum products pipeline was discovered to be leaking near Kokomo, Mississippi. Damage to cotton crops and water wells was discovered soon afterward.

***1968 – On April 15, gasoline odor was detected at a drinking fountain in Glendale, California. The source of the water well that fed the fountain was determined to be a 8 inch pipeline that was leaking. Between 100,000 and 250,000 US gallons (950,000 L) of gasoline were leaked into the local groundwater.

1968 – On August 7, a contractor laying a new pipeline broke an old pipeline in Norwalk, Ohio, spilling gasoline for 4 hours into the Huron River.

**1968 – On August 22, a 16 inch diameter gasoline pipeline ruptured at General Mitchell Field, spilling almost 200,000 US gallons (760,000 L) of gasoline, and forcing closure of one runway. Previous damage to the pipeline by heavy equipment working in the area was identified as the cause of the rupture.

1968 – A coal company digging machine hit an 8 inch LPG pipeline in Fulton County, Illinois on September 3, killing one person and injuring 4 others.

1968 – 2 teen boys shooting a rifle ignited gasoline leaking from a petroleum pipeline pumping station near Midland, Pennsylvania on November 3. A large brush fire ensued. Both boys had moderate burns. A stuck relief valve on the pipeline was the cause of the leakage.

1968 – On December 5, an LPG pipeline, near Yutan, Nebraska ruptured on December 5. Repair crews responded to the pipeline rupture, and thought LPG vapors were dispersed, but ignited the vapor cloud by driving into it. Five repairmen were killed. After the accident, the Nebraska State Fire Marshal ordered MAPCO to reduce its operating pressure, and to hydrostatic retest 52 miles (84 km) of that pipeline. During the tests, 195 longitudinal seams failed.

1969 – On January 13, a 22 inch diameter crude oil pipeline ruptured in Lima, Ohio, spilling over 2,000 US gallons (7,600 L) of oil into the sewer system. Cracks from welding were blamed for the failure.

**1969 – On February 24, a leaking crude oil pipeline caused a slick 35 miles (56 km) long in the Dry Creek near Greybull.

1969 – A 10 inch pipeline carrying aviation gasoline was ruptured by explosives on March 17 in Canyon, California. The fuel caught fire short after that.

**1970 – Early on September 2, residents of Jacksonville, Maryland, detected gasoline odors and noticed gasoline in a small creek flowing beneath a nearby road. Because fumes were still present in the late afternoon of September 2, a resident notified Colonial Pipeline at 6:19 p.m. about the situation. About 12 hours later, on the morning of September 3, an explosion and fire occurred in a ditch in which contractor personnel for Colonial were manually digging to further expose the pipeline & catch gasoline trickling from the ground. Five persons were injured, none fatally. The NTSB later pointed out that workers had failed to use a flammable vapor percent detector during the work. The leak point was found 4 days later. The failure resulted in a release of 30,186 gallons (718 barrels) of gasoline and kerosene.

1970 – On September 7, a pipeline leaked thousands of gallons of gasoline onto farmland near Ontario, Oregon. Roads were closed in the area until the gasoline was removed.

*1970 – On December 28, a 12 inch diameter pipeline ruptured in Jackson, Wisconsin, spilling 200 barrels (32 m3) of fuel oil into a wildlife sanctuary.

1972 – On January 12, the second pipeline leak in a month into the Tippecanoe River in Indiana on a Buckeye Pipeline company (now Buckeye Partners ) line hit. The Buckeye Pipeline was owned by the bankrupt Penn Central Railroad, preventing money from being spent on repairs. One EPA official stated “they know they have a leaky system“.

**1972 – On January 11, a 10 inch diameter pipeline ruptured in Clinton, Montana, spilling 3,000 barrels (480 m3) of diesel fuel, with some of it reaching the Clark Fork River.

1972 – On January 29, during the blowdown of a pipeline dehydrator, LPG fumes caught fire at Conway, Kansas.

*1972 – On February 12, a pipeline rupture spilled 16,000 US gallons (61,000 L) of diesel fuel into the Spokane River.

1972 – On September 6, a gasoline pipeline ruptured and ignited at a Plantation Pipeline Terminal in Bremen, Georgia. For a time, there were fears the fire might spread to nearby fuel storage tanks, but the fire was limited to the pipeline.

***1972 – In October, a crude oil pipeline ruptures near Shiprock, New Mexico, spilling 285,000 US gallons (1,080,000 L) of crude oil into the San Juan River, polluting it for 200 miles.

1973 – On February 22, in Austin, Texas, a natural gas liquids (NGL) pipeline ruptured due to an improper weld. A passing car or truck set off a vapor cloud explosion and fire. Six people were killed, and 2 others injured.

*1973 – On May 2, a 10 inch diameter pipeline ruptured in Murray, Idaho, causing a mist of diesel fuel to cover homes and trailers. Between 7,000 and 10,000 US gallons (38,000 L) of fuel were lost. Some of the fuel reached a nearby creek. There was no fire.

1973 – On May 3, improper sampling procedures on an LPG pipeline killed one worker and injured another from freezing at Dayton, Ohio.

1973 – In the summer, a pipeline ruptured in Diamond, Louisiana. The escaping gas fumes were ignited by a lawnmower, killing 2 people.

**1973 – On June 27, a pipeline failed near Findlay, Ohio, spill about 150,000 US gallons (570,000 L) of jet aviation fuel into the Ottawa Creek. A failed gasket caused the spill.

1973 – On October 18, a crude oil pipeline ruptured in Los Angeles, California. Crude flowed along several streets for a time.

***1973 – On December 4, a pipeline break releases 31,000 barrels (4,900 m3) of oil near Argyle, Minnesota.

1973 – On December 6, a pump station on an ammonia pipeline near Conway, Kansas, was started against a closed valve, and the pipeline failed in a previously damaged section. Two persons who drove through the ammonia vapors were hospitalized; several rural residents were evacuated from the area; and 89,796 US gallons (339,910 L) of anhydrous ammonia escaped.

1974 – On August 13, an ammonia pipeline failed near Hutchinson, Kansas after a pump station was started against a closed valve. 3 police officers were treated for ammonia inhalation; approximately 200 persons were evacuated from the area of the vapors; trees, lawns, shrubbery, and crops were burned; and an estimated 11,000 fish were killed.

1974 – On December 1, a crew repairing a leaking crude oil pipeline near Abilene, Texas, were overcome by sour crude oil fumes. Six of the repair crew died. The leak was cause by improper welding.

1975 – On January 17, a crude oil pipeline at Lima, Ohio ruptured after a valve was accidentally closed against a pumping pipeline. The spraying crude oil ignited, killing a Terminal Operator.

**1975 – In March, a leak was discovered in a 14 inch diameter petroleum products pipeline in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. Plantation Pipeline repaired the pipeline immediately, and began efforts to recover the spilled petroleum. From that time through June 1983, approximately 2,022 barrels of spilled petroleum products were recovered from standpipes at the leak site. Remediation efforts stopped in October 1984. Later tests raised questions on the possibility of not all of the spill products were recovered.

1975 – On March 26, a 12 inch diameter crude oil pipeline ruptured near Harwood, Missouri. Heavy rain slowed the cleanup.

1975 – On May 12, a natural gas liquids (NGL) pipeline ruptured due to previous mechanical damage at Devers, Texas. 4 people were killed in a following vapor cloud fire. The pipeline had been damaged when a valve was installed on the pipeline.

**1975 – On August 2, an LPG pipeline ruptured near Romulus, Michigan, due to previous mechanical damage to the pipeline, and over pressurization from operator error, caused by closing a valve against a pumping pipeline, at a storage facility. Nine people were injured in the following vapor cloud fire. Flames 500 feet (150 m) high engulfed a 600-foot (180 m)-diameter area, destroyed four houses and damaged three others, burned 12 vehicles, and consumed 2,389 barrels (379.8 m3) of propane.

***1976 – On February 25, an LPG/NGL pipeline ruptured near Whitharral, Texas, leading to vapor cloud fire that killed one, severely burning 4 others who later died, destroyed two homes, and burned an area about 400 yards wide. Electrical resistance weld (ERW) seam failure is suspected for the failure. From January 1968 to the date of the Whitharral accident, 14 longitudinal pipe seam failures had occurred on that pipeline system, which resulted in 6 other fatalities, and the escape of over 60,000 barrels (9,500 m3) of LPG.

1976 – On June 16, a front loader hit an 8 inch petroleum products pipeline in Los Angeles, California, during a road widening project along Venice Boulevard. 9 people were killed, a plastic factory was destroyed, and other serious property damage occurred.

1977 – On July 8, an explosion at Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. Pump Station No. 8 kills one worker, injures 5 others, and destroys the pump station. A US House of Representatives Committee later announced the cause was workers not following the proper procedures, causing crude oil to flow into a pump under repair at the time.

**1977 – On July 20, the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline was shut down for the 4th time in a month, when it was hit in a valve by a front loader. More than 40,000 US gallons (150,000 L) of crude oil was spilled.

1977 – On July 20, a 12 inch diameter propane pipeline ruptured near Ruff Creek, in Greene County, Pennsylvania, from stress corrosion cracking. The resulting propane vapor cloud ignited when a truck driven into the cloud stalled, then created a spark when it was restarted. Subsidence of underground coal mines in the area may have hastened the failure.

1977 – In August, a car drove through the leaking liquid from a petroleum pipeline in Lakewood, California. The pooled liquid appeared to be mud, but it exploded and burned, injuring a woman in the car.

1977 – On August 15, crude oil spilled at Alyeska Pipeline Pump Station No. 9. There was no fire, but a fire or explosion at that station could have shut down that pipeline, since Pump Station No. 8 was out of service from the previous month’s accident there. This was the seventh accident on this pipeline since the start up of the Alaska pipeline on June 20, 1977. The NTSB released three recommendations on September 9, 1977, to correct certain design and operating deficiencies in the pump rooms of each station of the Alyeska system.

**1977 – On September 10, a pipeline rupture spilled 69,000 US gallons (260,000 L) of gasoline into a creek in Toledo, Ohio. Corrosion of the pipeline caused the failure.

1978 – On February 15, a portion of the Alyeska Pipeline east of Fairbanks, Alaska was ruptured by an explosive device. Crude oil spilled in a 600-foot (180 m) diameter spot.

1978 – On August 4, an LPG pipeline at Donnellson, Iowa, ruptured from past mechanical damage and improper lowering for road improvements. The vapor cloud ignited several minutes after the rupture. Three people were killed and 2 others severely burned.

*1978 – On August 30, about 7,600 US gallons (29,000 L) of gasoline were spilled in Hampton, Pennsylvania . Workers boring for a sewer line had hit the fuel pipeline. Later, the 2 construction firms responsible were fined only $500 each.

1978 – On November 8, a crude oil pipeline leaks into the Farmington Bay Waterfowl Management Area west of Farmington, Utah. About 42,000 US gallons (160,000 L) of crude were spilled. The rupture was caused bypumping against a valve that had been closed for earlier pipeline maintenance.

*1985 – On April 5, a lightning caused computer malfunction resulted in a pipeline rupture that sent thousands of gallons of gasoline into the Yellow Leaf Creek in Alabama.

*1985 – On June 19, workers on the extension of the North Dallas Tollway ruptured a 12 inch gasoline pipeline, causing a massive gasoline spill along a creek bed north of Dallas, Texas. The gasoline later ignited. One person had moderate injuries, several office buildings were damaged by fire, and some automobiles were damaged.

*1985 – On July 23, in a rural area about 8 miles (13 km) south of Kaycee, Wyoming, a girth weld cracked during a pipeline re-coating project on a 23-year-old, 8-inch-diameter pipeline. The cracked girth weldallowed the release, atomization, and ignition of aircraft turbine fuel under 430 pounds pressure, killing one person, burning six persons, destroying construction equipment.

**1985 – On August 2, a gasoline leak of up to 42,000 US gallons (160,000 L) from a ruptured 10 inch pipeline ignited in Indianapolis, Indiana, causing a 200-foot (61 m) high fireball that killed three people, and injured 3 others working to clean up the spill along a creek.

**1985 – On September 23, a 12 inch diameter gasoline pipeline fitting was hit by a backhoe, and sprayed about 35,000 US gallons (130,000 L) of gasoline 45 feet (14 m) into the air in Staten Island, New York. There were evacuations, but no fire.

1986 – On February 22, an 8 inch high-pressure petroleum pipeline ruptures in Muskegon County, Michigan, spilling gasoline into creeks.

*1986 – On June 28, a pipeline ruptured and spilled diesel fuel into Trail Creek in Michigan City, Indiana. The fuel later ignited. Thousands of fish were killed.

*1986 – On July 8, early, a Williams petroleum products pipeline ruptured in Mounds View, Minnesota.Gasoline at 1,434 psi sprayed a residential area around 4:20 am local time, then ignited. A woman and her 7 year old daughter suffered fatal burns, at least two others were injured, and many homes damaged or destroyed. Confusion by the pipeline company led to a delay in shutting down the pipelineElectrical resistance welded (ERW) seam failure caused the rupture. During a hydrostatic test of this pipeline following the accident, 7 ERW seams failed. Studies of available data by OPS staff in early 1988 showed that ERW seams have been involved in 145 service failures in both hazardous liquid and natural gas pipelines since 1970 to early 1988, and that of these failures, all but 2 occurred on pipe manufactured prior to 1970.

1986 – On September 4, between 800 and 1200 residents were evacuated in East Chicago, Indiana after a gasoline tank at a pipeline Terminal ruptured. 28 people were overcome by gasoline fumes. There was no fire.

1986 – In September, petroleum products pipeline failed near Billings, Montana, causing the evacuation of nearby businesses. There was no fire.

1986 – On September 8, a pipeline failed under the Red River near Gainesville, Texas. Fumes from the pipeline sent 14 to hospitals for treatment.

*1986 – On December 25, a pipeline ruptures and spills furnace oil into the Des Plaines River near Chicago, Illinois. About 1,000 US gallons (3,800 L) of furnace oil was spilled. Corrosion seemed to cause the pipeline failure.

1987 – On March 12, petroleum pipeline ruptured and burned near Corsicana, Texas, forcing the closure of an Interstate highway, and cause some evacuations.

1987 – On March 26, work crew burning the remains of a house near Ladysmith, Virginia ruptured a nearby petroleum products pipeline with a bulldozer, igniting diesel fuel from the line. 2 of the worker were injured.

*1987 – On April 4, an LPG pipeline exploded at a Terminal in Iowa City, Iowa. Due to the fire spreading to a pipeline for nearby underground gas storage, residents within a 2 1/2 mile radius of the Terminal were evacuated for a time. The fire burned until April 20. The cause was an ERW seam failure in a pipeline. During a hydrostatic test of that pipeline, 20 more pipeline segment seams failed.

*1987 – On June 11, a “rock ripper” at a construction site punctured a 32 inch petroleum products pipeline in Centreville, Virginia. Gasoline sprayed from the rupture, but there was no fire. More than 15,500 US gallons (59,000 L) of gasoline were released. Thirteen emergency response personnel suffered from exposure to the gasoline fumes.

1987 – On July 23, a construction crew working on an Interstate 90 project east of Coeur d’Alene, Idaho struck the 10 inch diameter Yellowstone Pipeline, causing a leaking that sprayed out over 200 barrels (32 m3) of gasoline. The pipeline was supposed to have 30 inches of soil cover, but had only 2 inches of cover. There was no fire.

***1988 – On February 8, an offshore pipeline near Galveston, Texas, that may have been damaged by an anchor, ruptures, spilling about 15,576 barrels (2,476.4 m3) of crude oil into the Gulf.

**1988 – On April 9, a 20 inch diameter crude oil pipeline fails in a Peoria County, Illinois subdivision. About 200,000 US gallons (760,000 L) of crude were spilled, contaminating 2 private lakes.

1988 – On July 22, a pair of MAPCO LPG/NGL pipelines failed in an explosion south of Topeka, Kansas. 200 nearby residents had to be evacuated, and there was serious damage to US Route 75 nearby from the explosion & following fire. An ERW seam selective corrosion failure in one of the pipelines caused the failure.

**1988 – On September 10, a crude oil pipeline ruptured, spilling about 132,000 gallons of crude oil in Encino, California. The crude flowed into storm drains, and then into the Los Angeles River. Electrical interference to Cathodic protection from other pipelines was suspected to have cause the corrosion that caused the failure. The crude oil pipeline was on top of a steel water pipeline, which would directly interfere with Cathodic protection efforts.

**1988 – In November, corrosion of a 14-inch underground pipeline owned and operated by the Shell Oil Company, a predecessor of Shell Pipeline Corporation (Shell), resulted in the release of an estimated 120,000 US gallons (450,000 L) of gasoline. A pool of gasoline about 450 feet (140 m) by 50 feet (15 m) appeared among fields of corn and soybeans. The site of the release was in Limestone Township in Kankakee County, about 4 miles (6.4 km) west of Kankakee, Illinois. Approximately 2,100 people live within a 1-mile (1.6 km) radius of the November 1988 release point.

**1988 – On December 1, Koch Industries and Ashland Oil subsidiary 16 inch diameter crude oil pipeline failed near Dellwood, Minnesota, spilling about 200,000 US gallons (760,000 L) of crude on a farm. Snow complicated the cleanup. The leak occurred late December 1, but was not discovered until early December 2. An ERW seam fatigue crack caused the failure.

***1988 – On December 24, a 22 inch diameter crude oil pipeline ruptures near Vienna, Missouri, spilling more than 860,000 US gallons (3,300,000 L) of crude oil into the Gasconade River. A pipeline worker in Oklahoma failed to notice the pipeline’s plummeting pressure gauges for at least two hours. An ERW seam defect in the pipe was determined to be the cause of the failure.

***1989 – On January 24, crude oil pipeline rupture in Winkler County, Texas, spills over 23,000 barrels (3,700 m3) of oil. 6 acres (24,000 m2) of land were covered in oil, and groundwater was contaminated.

1989 – On May 25, a petroleum products pipeline failed, after the San Bernardino train disaster, California.Damage from a train derailment cleanup caused a CalNev petroleum products pipeline to rupture, spraying nearby homes with gasoline. Three were killed, 31 were injured, and 15 homes were damaged or destroyed in following fire.

*1989 – On June 2, a crude oil gathering pipeline ruptures near Craig, Colorado, spilling 10,000 US gallons (38,000 L) of crude into the Yampa River. Federal maintenance oversight of gathering pipelines ended in 1985.

**1989 – On December 18, a Colonial Pipeline petroleum pipeline failed near Locust Grove, Virginia. 212,000 US gallons (800,000 L) of kerosene spilled into the Rapidan and Rappahannock Rivers. On New Year’s Eve, following a rapid thaw and heavy rains, containment dams broke and kerosene flowed downstream toward Fredericksburg, Virginia. Fish and game were killed, the City’s water supply was cut off, and drinking water had to be hauled from Stafford County for seven days. This was the seventh major leak from Colonial Pipeline in Virginia since 1973.

***1990 – On January 2, an Exxon underwater pipeline located at the mouth of Morse Creek discharged approximately 13,500 barrels (2,150 m3) of No. 2 heating oil into the Arthur Kill waterway between New Jersey and Staten Island, New York.

**1990 – on March 30, a 10-inch-diameter pipeline, ruptured from overstress due to a landslide in Freeport, Pennsylvania, resulting in the release of approximately 1,300 barrels (210 m3) of mixed petroleum products. Spilled petroleum products entered Knapp’s Run, a small creek emptying into the Allegheny River and, eventually, the Ohio River. The product release resulted in extensive ground and water pollution and interrupted the use of the Allegheny River as a water supply for several communities. Damage to the pipeline and environmental cleanup and restoration costs exceeded $12 million.

****1990 – On May 6, a spool on a pipeline ruptured off of the Louisiana coast. 13,600 barrels (2,160 m3) of crude oil were estimated to have spilled.

**1990 – On August 29, a private contractor laying conduit for underground power lines ruptured a pipeline that fouled a Western Branch creek with diesel fuel in Chesapeake, Virginia. Over 67,000 US gallons (250,000 L) of fuel were spilled.

**1990 – On November 5, a crude oil pipeline ruptures near Ethel, Missouri, fouling over 35 miles (56 km) of the Chariton River. 44,000 to 66,000 US gallons (250,000 L) of crude were spilled.

1990 – In late November, at least 3 leaks spilling over a thousand gallons of oil were found in a pipeline in Cerritos, California, it was announced on November 23. One of the failed section of pipeline was 6 to 7 years old.

*1991 – On January 31, a Mobil Company crude oil pipeline ruptured near Valencia, California, spilling up to 75,000 gallons of crude oil. The same day, a report was released showing that particular pipeline had a 99.8% chance of a leak in the next 5 years.

****1991 – On March 2, a Lakehead (now Enbridge) crude oil pipeline near Grand Rapids, Minnesota ruptured on March 2. More than 40,000 barrels of crude went into the Prairie River. About 4 million US gallons (15,000 m3) of oil had spilled from that pipeline from the early 1970s to 1991, per Minnesota records. A resident in the area noticed the smell of oil and alerted the local fire department. Approximately 300 people living in homes near the site were evacuated for safety, but were allowed to return to their homes later in the night.

**1991 – On June 29, over 60,000 US gallons (230,000 L) of fuel oil and gasoline leaked from a 10 inch diameter Koch Industries pipeline in Carson, Wisconsin from a 3 inch crack. A previous significant leak had occurred on this pipeline in that area the year before. Local officials urged Koch to upgrade it’s leak monitoring equipment. Koch later replaced 12 miles (19 km) of that pipeline in the area.

**1991 – On September 5, about 42,000 US gallons (160,000 L) of crude oil spilled from a broken pipeline at a barge facility at High Island, Texas.

***1991 – On December 19, a 36-inch-diameter Colonial Pipeline ruptured from prior excavation damageabout 2.8 miles (4.5 km) downstream of the pipeline’s Simpsonville, South Carolina, pump station. The rupture allowed more than 500,000 US gallons (1,900,000 L) of diesel fuel to flow into Durbin Creek, causing environmental damage that affected 26 miles (42 km) of waterways, including the Enoree River, which flows through Sumter National Forest. The spill also forced Clinton and Whitmire, South Carolina, to use alternative water supplies.

**1992 – In January, a pipeline offshore of Grand Island, Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico leaked thousands of gallons of crude oil.

1992 – On April 7, a salt dome cavern used to store LPG & similar products was overfilled, leading to an uncontrolled release of highly volatile liquids (HVLs) from a salt dome storage cavern near Brenham, Texas, formed a large, heavier-than-air gas cloud that later exploded. Three people died from injuries sustained either from the blast or in the following fire. An additional 21 people were treated for injuries at area hospitals. Damage from the accident exceeded $9 million.

1993 – On March 28, a pressurized 36-inch-diameter (910 mm) petroleum product pipeline owned and operated by Colonial Pipeline Company ruptured near Hemdon, Virginia. The rupture created a geyser which sprayed diesel fuel over 75 feet (23 m) into the air, coating overhead powerlines and adjacent trees, and misting adjacent Virginia Electric Power Company buildings. The diesel fuel spewed from the rupture into an adjacent storm water management pond and flowed overland and through a network of storm sewer pipes before reaching Sugarland Run Creek, a tributary of the Potomac River. The cause was latent third party damage.

**1993 – On April 6, a crude oil pipeline ruptured & spill up to 125,000 gallons of crude oil into a stream bed in Kern County, California, forcing a temporary closure of the nearby Golden State Freeway.

**1993 – On July 26, a 6-inch pipeline in Nebraska was exposed by scour in a creek bed and its banks, and was struck by flood debris, which caused it to rupture. The rupture resulted in the release of 2,203 barrels (350.2 m3) of anhydrous ammonia.

1993 – On August 20, an ammonia pipeline failed in Sperry, Oklahoma. 80 homes in the area were evacuated. Several people were treated for ammonia inhalation injuries.

1993 – On November 3, Amoco Pipeline was fined $12,500 for a 1971 pipeline leak that contaminated a drinking well and caused other pollution problems for people living near Garfield, Minnesota.

*1993 – On December 2, a 10 inch diameter Conoco pipeline ruptured, spilling 8,400 US gallons (32,000 L) of gasoline into a creek in Washington, Missouri.

**1994 – In January, a pipeline ruptures, dumping almost 162,500 US gallons (615,000 L) of oil in a river, the Marais des Cygnes River in Osawatomie, Kansas. In addition to a $804,700 fine, BP Amoco agreed to spend at least $145,300 on a supplemental environmental project involving reconstruction improvements to Osawatomie’s water intake.

1994 – On February 1, the third explosion in 7 years hit a LPG/NGL pipeline Terminal in Iowa City, Iowa. 11 workers at the Terminal escaped injury, and 6 families within 1 1/2 miles of the Terminal were evacuated. The 2 previous explosions were in 1987 and 1989.

**1994 – On early September 22, residents near O’Fallon, Missouri detected a petroleum smell. The local Fire Department was called several hours later, and noticed an oily mist in the area, and found a leaking pipeline. The owner of the 10 inch diameter petroleum products later claimed the spill volume was less than 1,000 US gallons (3,800 L), but later calculations and batch volume measurements indicate a spill of 29,000 to 37,000 US gallons (140,000 L). EPA officials later admit someone lied about the spill volume. Over the next 10 years, 8 attempts at remediation were made, before the O’Day Creek was cleaned of all petroleum products.

**1994 – On October 8, a lightning strike shut a valve on a crude oil pipeline, while the oil was flowing, triggering a pressure buildup that ripped a 50-square-inch hole in a section of the pipe that was already weakened by corrosion. Pipeline employees — unaware of the rupture in the pipe — turned on the pumps after the pipeline shut down automatically, sending oil pouring into the creek for about an hour. The spill created a 12-mile (19 km)-long slick on Nueces and Corpus Christi bays along the Texas Gulf Coast. Nearly seven years later, delicate coastal marshes that serve as a nursery for shrimp, flounder, crabs and other marine life have not fully recovered. The estimated spill size was 2,151 barrels (342.0 m3), but that was debated as being too small a size. The pipeline eventually agreed to pay more than $45 million in damages.

***1994 Record high flooding along the San Jacinto River in Texas lead to the failure of 8 pipelines crossing that river. Due to the flooding many other pipelines were also undermined. More than 35,000 barrels (5,600 m3) of petroleum and petroleum products were released into the river. Ignition of the released products resulted in 547 people receiving (mostly minor) burn and inhalation injuries. Spill response costs exceeded $7 million, and estimated property damage losses were about $16 million.

**1994 – On November 29, a leak of at least 20,000 US gallons (76,000 L) of diesel fuel was discovered on a Koch Industries pipeline near Plover, Wisconsin. The leak brought this pipeline’s total spill volume to 100,000 US gallons (380,000 L) on a 91 miles (146 km) pipeline section through several years.

***1995 – Since starting operations in 1954 until 1995, Yellowstone Pipeline had 71 leaks along the Flathead Indian Reservation in Montana, spilling 3,500,000 US gallons (13,000,000 L) of petroleum products. Eventually, the Flathead refused to sign a new lease with Yellowstone.

1995 – On December 2, 3 contractors were killed, and another injured, when a vacuum used to control flammable fumes accidentally reversed during welding at a pipeline facility near McCamey, Texas.

1996 – On February 5, a pipeline ruptured and spilled diesel fuel into a creek in Fairview Heights, Missouri.

***1996 – On May 23, a 20 inch diameter pipeline ruptured at a location near Gramercy, Louisiana. The ruptured pipeline ultimately released about 475,000 US gallons (1,800,000 L) of gasoline into a common pipeline right-of-way and marsh land. Gasoline also entered the Blind River, causing environmental damage and killing fish, wildlife, and vegetation in the area. The pipeline controller did not at first recognize the pipeline had failed, and continued to ignore alarms from the pipeline SCADA system.

***1996 – On June 26, a 36 inch diameter Colonial Pipeline ruptured at the Reedy River, near Fork Shoals, South Carolina. The ruptured pipeline released about 957,600 US gallons (3,625,000 L) of fuel oil into the Reedy River and surrounding areas. The spill polluted a 34-mile (55 km) stretch of the Reedy River, causing significant environmental damage. Floating oil extended about 23 miles (37 km) down the river. Approximately 35,000 fish were killed, along with other aquatic organisms and wildlife. The estimated cost to Colonial Pipeline for cleanup and settlement with the State of South Carolina was $20.5 million. No one was injured in the accident. The pipeline was operating at reduced pressure due to known corrosion issues, but pipeline operator confusion led to an accidental return to normal pressure in that pipeline section, causing the rupture.

***1996 – On August 4, 420,000 US gallons (1,600,000 L) of unspecified petroleum product spilled from a Lakehead pipe near Donaldson, Minnesota.

1996 – On November 5, a pipeline in Murfreesboro, Tennessee was undergoing maintenance. The pipeline was returned to service, but a valve on that pipeline was accidentally left closed from the maintenance, causing pressure to rupture the pipeline.

**1997 – On May 9, a leak was detected on a 12 inch diameter pipeline near Mount Morris, Illinois on May 9. Between 125,000 and 130,000 US gallons (490,000 L) of gasoline were spilled. A month later, gasoline was till being extracted from the area.

*1997 – On May 30, Colonial Pipeline spilled approximately 18,900 US gallons (72,000 L) of gasoline, some of which entered an unnamed creek and its adjoining shoreline in the Bear Creek watershed near Athens, Georgia. During the spill, a vapor cloud of gasoline formed, causing several Colonial employees to flee for safety. This spill resulted from a calculation error related to a regular procedure. No one checked the calculations, nor did Colonial have a procedure in place to check such calculations.

**1997 – In August, residents in Vacaville, California noticed petroleum fumes, but a leaking pipeline was not found until September 10. A hairline crack from the pipe’s manufacturing was the cause, and 20,000 to 60,000 US gallons (230,000 L) of petroleum products had leaked by the time the source was found.

***1997 Over a period of years, more than 420,000 US gallons (1,600,000 L) of gasoline spilled from small leaks in Colonial’s pipeline near Darling Creek in St. Helena Parish, Louisiana, before Colonial finally discovered the leak in December 1997. As of September 1999, a plume of gasoline, including leaded gasoline, extended over approximately 14 acres (57,000 m2) on the groundwater surface, more than 60 acres (240,000 m2) of groundwater had been contaminated, and some of the gasoline had entered Darling Creek.

*1998 – On January 23, at least 800 barrels (130 m3) of light crude oil was spilled into the Gulf of Mexico 50 miles (80 km) south of Galveston, Texas by a leaking pipeline.

**1998 – A rupture in a pipeline in a landfill at Sandy Springs, Georgia, discovered on March 30, resulted in the release of more than 30,000 US gallons (110,000 L) of gasoline. When the pipe was excavated, it was found to be buckled and cracked. The Safety Board found that the pipeline ruptured because of settlement of soil and trash underneath the pipeline.

***1998 – On September22, a 8,810 barrels (1,401 m3) crude oil spill from a Lakehead pipeline near Plummer, Minnesota was caused by an excavator hitting that pipeline.

**1999 – On February 9, a pipeline rupture in Knoxville, Tennessee, and released over 53,000 US gallons (200,000 L) of diesel fuel into the Tennessee River. A brittle-like crack was found on the pipe in an area of coating failure. The NTSB expressed concern that the material’s toughness had a role in this rupture. Two days before the rupture, an in-line inspection device was run through the pipe segment, with no anomalies in the rupture area reported. Contributing to the severity of the accident was Colonial Pipeline Company’s failure to determine from the SCADA system that a leak had occurred, with the result that the pipeline controller started and restarted the pipeline, increasing the amount of diesel fuel that was released.

*1999 – On June 10, a pipeline in a Bellingham, Washington park ruptured and leaked gasoline, and later vapor from the leak exploded and killed two 10 year old boys and an 18 year old man. Issues causing the rupture were found to be previous pipe damage by excavation, an incorrectly set up pressure relief valve, unexpected repeated remote valve closure, and new software tests on the live controlling computer.

2000 – On January 10, approximately 100 barrels of jet fuel were discharged from a portion of the Plantation Pipeline in Newington, Virginia, some of which entered into Accotink Creek and its adjoining shorelines. The failure resulted from a failed gasket on an interface detector.

***2000 – On January 27, in Winchester, Kentucky, a pipeline accident released about 490,000 US gallons (1,900,000 L) of crude oil. NTSB investigators found a dent on the bottom of the pipe in the rupture area. Marathon-Ashland spent about $7.1 million in response to the accident.

**2000 – On February 5, a pipeline failed and spilled over 192,000 US gallons (730,000 L) of crude oil in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Pennsylvania. The source of the spill was a break in a miter bend in the pipe, which was estimated to be at least 50 years old.

***2000 – On March 9, a petroleum pipeline failure in Greenville, Texas. A 28-inch-diameter pipeline ruptured and released 13,436 barrels (2,136.2 m3) of gasoline. The released gasoline flowed a few hundred feet across the surrounding terrain and into a dry creek bed, which was a tributary to East Caddo Creek. From the tributary, the gasoline flowed downstream into East Caddo Creek. The banks of the tributary and creek contained the escaping gasoline as it flowed away from the ruptured pipe. The probable cause of the pipeline failure was corrosion-fatigue cracking that initiated at the edge of the longitudinal seam weld at a likely preexisting weld defect. Contributing to the failure was the loss of pipe coating integrity.

**2000 – On April 7, a pipeline released fuel oil near Chalk Point, Maryland. The Piney Point Oil Pipeline system, which was owned by the Potomac Electric Power Company (Pepco), experienced a pipe failure at the Chalk Point Generating Station in southeastern Prince George’s County, Maryland. The release was not discovered and addressed by the contract operating company, Support Terminal Services, Inc., until the late afternoon. Approximately 140,400 US gallons (531,000 L) of fuel oil were released into the surrounding wetlands and Swanson Creek and, subsequently, the Patuxent River as a result of the accident. No injuries were caused by the accident, which cost approximately $71 million for environmental response and clean-up operations.

**2000 On June 7, a stopple fitting weld failed on a pipeline, causing a rupture releasing 75,000 US gallons (280,000 L) of gasoline into the environment, and causing the evacuation of more than 500 homes in Blackman Charter Township, Michigan. The failure caused the shutdown of 30% of Michigan’s gasoline supplies for nine days, contaminated a creek which flows into the Grand River, and a railroad track near the failure site was shut down for a week. Later tests found 715 anomalies in this pipeline.

2000 – September 8 – For the second time in 24 hours, a state contractor building a noise wall along the I-475 in Toledo, Ohio struck an underground pipeline, and for a second time the contractor blamed faulty pipeline mapping for the accident. In this incident, the pipe was a six-inch gas pipeline. The crew was digging a hole with an auger for a noise-wall support on September 8, when it hit the underground pipe less than 500 meters from the previous day’s incident.

2000 – On September 7, a Bulldozer ruptured a 12 inch diameter NGL pipeline on Rt. 36, south of Abilene, Texas. An Abilene police detective, with 21 years of service, was severely burned and later died. Nearby, a woman saved herself by going underwater in her swimming pool. Her house was destroyed by the explosion & fire. The owner of the pipeline, ExxonMobil, was later fined by the Texas Railroad Commission for thepipeline not being marked.

**2000 – On November 3, a front end loader punctured an 8 inch diameter pipeline carrying diesel fuel in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Diesel fuel sprayed 40 feet (12 m) into the air. The fuel flowed for over 2 hours before stopping, and contaminating the area with more than 40,000 US gallons (150,000 L) of diesel fuel.

***2001 – On April 1, a Dome Pipeline in North Dakota carrying gasoline ruptured and burst into flames a few miles west of Bottineau, North Dakota. An estimated 1.1 million US gallons (4,200 m3) of gasoline burned before the pipeline could be shut down. The company attributed the break to damage by an “outside force,” which A Bottineau County Sheriff said appeared to be frost that melted at uneven rates, twisting and breaking the pipeline.

2001 – On July 24, a pipeline ruptures and spreads burning gasoline near Manheim, Pennsylvania.

**2001 – On August 17, an Oklahoma crude oil pipeline ruptured after being struck by a machine cleaning roadside ditches, sending oil 30 feet (9.1 m) into the air and damaging nearby cotton crops with up to 150,000 US gallons (570,000 L) spilled.

**2001 – On December 14, an anhydrous ammonia spill near Algona, Iowa killed nearly 1.3 million fish – the largest fish kill on that state’s record to date, Iowa state officials said. More than 58,000 US gallons (220,000 L) of anhydrous ammonia over a 9 hour period spilled from a broken pipeline owned by Koch Industries Inc. into Lotts Creek and the Des Moines River killing minnows, bass and other game fish. Koch Pipeline, a Texas company that owns the 8-inch pipeline, was doing maintenance work on a valve on the pipeline. Officials said the plume drifted over a six-mile (10 km) area causing officials to evacuate residents in its path.

2002 – On or about March 13, approximately 20 barrels of oil or jet fuel were discharged from a portion of the Plantation Pipeline in Alexandria, Virginia, some of which entered into an unnamed tributary of Hooff Run and its adjoining shorelines. The pipeline failure appears to have resulted from a hole in the pipeline caused by high-voltage arcing between the pipeline and a utility pole anchor.

**2002 – On April 6, a BP-Amoco pipeline ruptured and released about 100,000 US gallons (380,000 L) of oil into a coastal area known as Little Lake in Louisiana.

2002 – On June 20, PHMSA ordered Columbia Gas Transmission Company to do extensive repair to one of their gas transmission pipelines in the states of Pennsylvania & New York after finding extensive wall thin on sections of that pipeline caused by external corrosion. Approximately 800 anomalies with wall thickness losses of greater than 65 percent were found during a smart pig examination, with 76 of the found anomalies having a wall thickness loss of greater than 80 percent. Many of the affected sections of pipe were older sections lacking coating, which is known to reduce external corrosion on pipelines.

*2002 – On July 4, a rupture of an Enbridge Pipeline and release of crude oil near Cohasset, Minnesota. The pipeline ruptured in a marsh near Cohasset, in Itasca County, spilling 6,000 barrels (950 m3) of crude oil. In an attempt to keep the oil from contaminating the Mississippi River, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources set a controlled burn that lasted for 1 day and created a smoke plume about one mile (1.6 km) high and five miles (8 km) long. The pipe failed due to cracking caused by train shipping induced cracking of the pipe being delivered.

**2002 – On September 20, Friday, at approximately 22:10, a gasoline leak from an 8-inch pipeline operated by Cenex Pipeline (terminal) was discovered near Glendive, Montana. The release of approximately 1,000 barrels (160 m3) of unleaded gasoline flowed into Seven Mile Creek, and then downstream into to its confluence with the Yellowstone River. Several trenches was constructed near the rupture pipe for product collection points. As of September 25, 2002, a vacuum truck had recovered approximately 21,000 US gallons (79,000 L) of gasoline [and water] from the boomed locations and trenches.

**2003 – On January 24, an Enbridge crude oil pipeline ruptures at a terminal in Douglas County, Wisconsin on January 24. Some of the crude oil flowed into the Nemadji River. Over 100,000 US gallons (380,000 L) were spilled.

*2003 – On or about February 22, approximately 788 barrels of gasoline were discharged from a portion of Plantation Pipeline in Hull, Georgia, some of which entered into an unnamed tributary of East Sandy Creek and its adjoining shorelines. The spill resulted from a failed gasket on a buried block valve.

2003 – On May 8, an 8 inch diameter LPG pipeline failed near Lebanon, Ohio. About 80 homes and one school in the area were evacuated. There was no fire or injuries.

*2003 – On July 30, A Kinder Morgan pipeline in Tucson, Arizona ruptured and spewed 10,000 to 19,000 US gallons (72,000 L) of gasoline on five houses under construction, flooding nearby streets. The resulting pipeline closure caused major gas shortages in the state. The U.S. Office of Pipeline Safety had warned carriers previously that pipe of the type that Kinder Morgan had in Arizona had manufacturing defects that could grow over time. A hydrostatic test that was performed on this pipeline after repairs failed 40 feet (12 m) from the first failure.

**2004 – On April 28, a petroleum pipeline owned and operated by Kinder Morgan Energy Partners ruptured, and spilled an estimated 1,500 -1,600 barrels (250 m3) of diesel fuel into marshes adjacent to Suisun Bay in Northern California. The line was corroded. The company failed to notify California authorities about the spill for 18 hours, a failure for which it was later cited.

*2004 – On May 23, a leak in a sampling tube on a pipeline in Renton, Washington spilled several thousand gallons of gasoline, which ignited.

2004 – On September 26, a vandal started up a trackhoe at a construction site in New Caney, Texas, and dug into a propylene pipeline. The escaping propylene ignited, causing nearby residents to evacuate. There were no injuries reported.

**2004 – On September 28, a pipeline fails in Hughes County, Oklahoma, spilling an estimated 1,500 barrels (240 m3) of diesel fuel.

**2004 – On October 27, an anhydrous ammonia pipeline ruptured near Kingman, Kansas, and released approximately 4,858 barrels (772.4 m3) of anhydrous ammonia. Nobody was killed or injured due to the release. The anhydrous ammonia leaked into a creek and killed more than 25,000 fish including some from threatened species. The pipeline had previous damage to it. The pipeline controller had misinterpreted the leak as other problems with the system operation, causing the leak to go on longer. As a result of this, and another ammonia pipeline leak the month before, the pipeline owner and it’s 2 operating companies were later fined $3.65 million.

**2004 – On November 9, in Walnut Creek, California, a petroleum pipeline carrying gasoline to San Jose, California, owned and operated by Kinder Morgan Energy Partners (KMEP) was struck by a backhoe used by Mountain Cascade Inc. (MC), a contractor operating in the construction of a water pipeline for the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). A massive gasoline spill was subsequently ignited, resulting in an explosive fireball that caused the deaths, by burns, of four workers and one supervisor and the severe injury of five others. A Kinder Morgan worker had misread an as built map, and had incorrectly marked the pipeline’s route before the accident.

**2004 – On November 21, a 14 inch petroleum products pipeline sprung a leak that was transporting gasoline at the time of the release. The Calnev Pipeline, owned and operated by the California-Nevada Pipeline Company, a subsidiary of Kinder-Morgan Energy Partners, is the main source of petroleum fuel products for Las Vegas, Nevada. An 80-foot (24 m) geyser of gasoline was discovered on the next morning, after numerous complaints of a strong gasoline odor along Interstate 15 in northern San Bernardino County, CA.

*2004 – On December 24, as much as 5,000 gallons of crude oil spilled on from a ConocoPhillips pipeline south of Laurel, Montana near the Yellowstone River. Hydrogen sulfide gas from the oil could have posed a major danger, but the wind helped immensely to dissipate the gas.

***2005 – In January, a Mid-Valley owned and Sunoco operated pipeline ruptured, spilling 260,000 US gallons (980,000 L) of oil into the Kentucky and Ohio rivers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency fined the companies $2.5 million for the spill.

*2005 – On February 1, an ExxonMobil underground gasoline pipeline fire forced 43 families from their homes near Allentown, Pennsylvania. The pipeline burned for over 72 hours. There were no reported injuries.

2005 – On April 1, a petroleum products pipeline is found leaking gasoline near Truckee, California. Gasoline spread into Donner Creek.

*2005 – In May, a pipeline failed in Bryan County, Oklahoma, spilling 860 barrels (137 m3) of crude oil.

**2005 – On May 28, a 12-inch (300 mm) Kinder Morgan Energy Partners pipeline ruptured in El Paso, Texas, releasing gasoline.

**2006 – On March 2, a surveillance crew discovered a crude oil spill near North Slope Borough, Alaska. The pipeline failure resulted in a release currently estimated at 5,000 barrels (790 m3) of processed crude oil, impacting the arctic tundra and covering approximately 2 acres (8,100 m2) of permafrost. The pipeline’s leak detection system was not effective in recognizing and identifying the failure. Failure to run cleaning pigs to remove internal corrosive build up. The failure caused crude oil price to spike though out the World.

*2006 – On March 23, a pipeline failed west of Toledo, Ohio, spilling about 200 barrels (32 m3) of unleaded gasoline. During the repair work, another smaller nearby leak was also found.

*2006 – On or about April 17, a Plantation Pipeline line experienced a failure in Henrico County, near Richmond, Virginia. The failure resulted in the release of an unknown quantity of jet fuel in a residential area. The jet fuel sprayed for approximately 14 minutes and the spray traveled the distance of approximately 200 feet (61 m). The jet fuel did not ignite.

**2006 – On June 27, a Koch Industries pipeline carrying crude oil failed near the town of Little Falls, Minnesota. The pipeline estimated that approximately 3,200 barrels (510 m3) of crude oil were released.

**2006 – On August 12, a petroleum pipeline failed in Romeoville, Illinois. About 59,000 US gallons (220,000 L) of product were lost. External corrosion was the cause, but there were no injuries.

*2006 – On October 12, a pipeline explosion occurred when a tugboat pushing two barges hit the pipeline Thursday in West Cote Blanche Bay, about two miles (3 km) from shore and 100 miles (160 km) southwest of New Orleans, Louisiana. 4 crew members were killed, and 2 were missing and later presumed dead.

2006 – On or about November 27, 2006, approximately 97 barrels of gasoline were discharged from a portion of Plantation’s Pipeline System in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, into Paw Creek and its adjoining shorelines. The leak resulted from a failed gasket on an above-ground block valve.

***2007 – On January 1, an Enbridge pipeline that runs from Superior, Wisconsin to near Whitewater, Wisconsin failed, resulting in a spill of ~50,000 US gallons (190,000 L) of crude oil onto farmland and into a drainage ditch. The same pipeline was struck by construction crews on February 2, 2007, in Rusk County, Wisconsin, spilling ~126,000 US gallons (480,000 L) of crude. Some of the oil filled a hole more than 20 feet (6.1 m) deep and was reported to have contaminated the local water table.

**2007 – February: A construction crew strikes an Enbridge pipeline in Rusk County, spilling 3,000 barrels (480 m3).

2007 – On March 29, 2007, near Yutan, Nebraska, a pipeline was hit by construction equipment. About 1,697 barrels of natural gasoline was lost.

**2007 – May 16: 63,000 US gallons (240,000 L) of gasoline spilled into an old stripping pit that covers a three-acre area in Coal Township. The Kerris and Helfrick company owns the property where the gas leak occurred, and the excavator, was working for the company when he accidentally ruptured the Sunoco Logistics 14-inch diameter petroleum pipeline. The gasoline was mostly absorbed into areas of soil, fill and coal strippings at the site.

2007 – On July 18 – 2007 New York City steam explosion.

**2007 – On November 27, an oil pipeline owned by Enbridge exploded in Clearbrook, Minnesota, during repairs, causing the deaths of two employees. DOT officials said that two Enbridge workers died in a crude oil explosion as they worked to make repairs on the former Lakehead system pipeline. Enbridge was cited for failing to safely and adequately perform maintenance and repair activities, clear the designated work area from possible sources of ignition, and hire properly trained and qualified workers.

*2008 – On January 5, a pipeline ruptured at a filet weld, leaking natural gasoline in Oologah, Oklahoma. 690 barrels of the gasoline were lost.

****2008 – On January 8, a pipeline split open near Denver City, Texas, spilling 1.3 million US gallons (4,900 m3) of crude oil. The pipeline company failed to detect and stop the leak for more than 24 hoursERW seam failure appears to be the cause.

****2008 – On July 28, the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Illinois ordered Apex Oil Company Inc., to clean up ground water and soil contamination, at an expected cost of at least $150 million. During the period 1967 through 1988, Apex Oil’s legal predecessor, Clark Oil and Refining Corp., released gasoline from leaking pipelines and other spills, that commingled with other responsible parties’ releases and resulted in the large plume of refined petroleum substances beneath Hartford, Illinois. Vapors from the underground plume of millions of gallons of leaked and spilled petroleum products have migrated into homes in the village, causing years of fires, explosions, and evacuations.

**2008 – On August 10, a 20 inch diameter crude oil pipeline ruptured near Golden Gate, Illinois. About 243,000 gallons of crude were spilled, with about 33,000 gallons being lost. The cause was listed as a pipe seam failure.

2008 – On August 29, a 24 inch gas transmission pipeline ruptured in Cooper County, Missouri. Corrosion had caused the pipeline to lose 75% of its wall thickness in the failure area.

**2008 – On September 23, a ruptured pipeline causes a fire at a Pipeline Terminal in Pasadena, Texas. One worker was killed, and another injured, with about 190,000 US gallons (720,000 L) of product being lost. The failure was caused by internal corrosion.

*2008 – On October 3, a crew working on a Turnpike expansion drill into a pertoleum products pipeline in Hamilton, New Jersey. Over 25,000 US gallons (95,000 L) of diesel fuel were spilled.

*2008 – On November 25, a gasoline release from a petroleum pipeline occurred at a retail mall in Murrysville, PA. Officials said the release occurred from the six-inch line at about 9:30 a.m. while a Sunoco Logistics crew was working on a ball valve.[107] The failure resulted in the evacuation of numerous stores, restaurants and roads in the immediate vicinity due to the dousing of gasoline and subsequent vapors emitting from the 11,760 US gallons (44,500 L) of spilled product.

*2009 – On February 18, a rupture of pipeline near Cygnet, Ohio, owned by Philadelphia-based Sunoco, resulted in one of the largest oil spills in Wood County history. At approximately 5:00 p.m., the company discovered the release at the pump station and terminal located in Cygnet, Ohio.[111] Upon learning of the release, the company immediately shut down the pipeline, stopped operations at the pump station and terminal, notified the appropriate authorities, and began an emergency response. As of 11:05 a.m. ET on February 19, the release had been stopped from the pipe. The damaged pipeline, which was operating at the time, released 1,250 barrels (199 m3) of crude oil into a farm field. Eventually, 782 of the 1,250 barrels (199 m3) released were recovered. Some of the crude oil, approximately 200 barrels (32 m3), did contaminate a local creek. There were no fatalities, or injuries.

2009 – On August 17, a pipeline was found leaking by an aerial patrol in Atoka County, Oklahoma. 50 barrels (7.9 m3) of diesel fuel were estimated to have been released as a result of this accident, and none of it was recovered.

2009 – On October 7, a leaking pipeline carrying jet fuel was accidentally ignited by a pipeline repair crew in Upton County, Texas.

2009 – On Novemebr 14, a fire at a gas compressor station near Cameron, West Virginia slightly burns one employee, and causes $5.6 million of damage to the facility.

2009 – On December 23, a crude oil pipeline started leaking in Galveston, Texas. There was no fire or explosion as a result of the accident, and an estimated 120 barrels (19 m3) of crude oil were released to the environment.

***2010 – On February 25, a natural gas liquids (NGL) pipeline ruptured near Pond Creek, Oklahoma, releasing over 575,000 US gallons (2,180,000 L) of NGL’s, and forcing road closures. There was no fire.

2010 – On March 1, at approximately 8:10 am CST, Mid-Valley Pipeline identified a release of crude oil in the manifold area of the Mid-Valley tank farm in Longview, TX. Crude oil was observed “gushing” from the soil in the manifold area, and 198 barrels of crude oil were estimated to have been released and 196 barrels were recovered from the secondary containment area within Mid-Valley’s site.

2010 – On March 25, there was a release of 1700 barrels of Vacuum Gas Oil (VGO) from the FM-1 pipeline into an open in-ground valve pit and the surrounding area in the West Yard of the Sunoco, R&M Philadelphia refinery in Philadelphia, PA. The area was under the control of the Operator in a fenced off area that is off-limits to the public.

**2010 – On April 5, a crude oil pipeline ruptures near near Green River, Wyoming. At least 84,000 US gallons (320,000 L) of crude were spilled. Corrosion in the pipeline was the cause.

**2010 – On April 23, near Solomon, Kansas, a pipeline ruptured due to previous excavation damage. About 1,659 barrels of natural gasoline were lost.

**2010 – In May, Memorial Weekend, a BP pipeline carrying gasoline leaked nearly 93,000 US gallons (350,000 L) into a farm field. The leak occurred in Constantine Township, St. Joseph County, Michigan.

*2010 – On June 12, a Chevron crude oil pipeline damage by lightning ruptured, causing 800 barrels (130 m3) of crude to spill into Red Butte Creek in Salt Lake City, Utah. Crude then flowed in a pond in Liberty Park.

****2010 – On July 26, Enbridge Energy Partners LLP (Enbridge), reported that a 30-inch (760 mm) pipeline belonging to Enbridge burst in Marshall, Michigan. The company estimates over 800,000 US gallons (3,000,000 L) of crude oil leaked into Talmadge Creek, a waterway that feeds the Kalamazoo River, whereas EPA reports over 1,139,569 gallons of oil have been recovered as of November 2011. On July 27, 2010, an Administrative Order was issued by U.S. EPA requiring the performance of removal actions in connection with the facility. The Order requires Enbridge to immediately conduct removal of a discharge or to mitigate or prevent a substantial threat of a discharge of oil and to submit a Work Plan for the cleanup activities that was to include a Health and Safety Plan, as required by 29 CFR 1910.120 (HAZWOPER). An oil spill cleanup contractor from Texas, Hallmark, bussed numerous undocumented workers to Battle Creek to work on the cleanup of oil spill and had them work in unsafe conditions.

**2010 – On August 10, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Justice Department announced that Plains All American Pipeline and several of its operating subsidiaries have agreed to spend approximately $41 million to upgrade 10,420 miles (16,770 km) of crude oil pipeline operated in the United States. The settlement resolves Plains’ Clean Water Act violations for 10 crude oil spills in Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Kansas, and requires the company to pay a $3.25 million civil penalty.

2010 – On August 27, a LPG pipeline sprang a leak in Gilboa, New York, forcing the evacuation of 23 people.

2010 – On December 1, a valve on a crude oil pipeline leaked about 500 barrels (79 m3) of crude in Salt Lake City, Utah. This failure was only 100 yards from a June 2010 failure on the same pipeline.

2010 – On December 2, a pipeline was discovered leaking gasoline near Livingston, Illinois.

*2010 – On December 14, a pipeline leaks crude oil near Lockport, Illinois. EPA officials say the spill is near wetlands that house several endangered species. Federal officials say about 21,000 US gallons (79,000 L) of oil were released in Lockport and Romeoville, about 35 miles (56 km) southwest of Chicago.

2010 – On December 21, a crude oil pipeline was discovered leaking into the Dominguez Channel in the Port of Los Angeles, California. Over 1,000 gallons of crude oil was recovered, but the pipeline company was alleged to have failed to report the spill to State or Federal pipeline authorities. A 61 count criminal complaint was later filed in this accident.

*2011 – On February 24, a pipeline near Texas City, Texas ruptured, sending up to 5,000 US gallons (19,000 L) of gasoline into Bayou Pierre.

***2011 – On April 13, a farmer & rancher near White Oak Township, Michigan smelled gasoline, and discovered gasoline from a products pipeline leaking into a drainage ditch. As of late September, an estimated 460,000 gallons of gasoline had been released, with about 111,000 gallons of it recovered.

*2011 – On May 19, a 10 inch diameter crude oil pipeline ruptured near Maysville, Oklahoma. Over 42,000 US gallons (160,000 L) of crude were lost. There was no fire. Internal pipeline corrosion was the cause.

2011 – On July 1, a 2 inch diameter lateral on a crude oil pipeline ruptured in Huntington Beach, California. A major road, Goldenwest Street, had to be closed for cleaning and pipeline repairs.

**2011 – On July 2, a 12-inch diameter Exxon Mobil crude oil pipeline ruptured, and spilled oil into the Yellowstone River in south-central Montana. Some residents of Laurel, Montana had to be evacuated. The break near Billings fouled the riverbank and forced municipalities and irrigation districts to close intakes. Exxon later increased the spill size estimate to 1500 barrels in January 2012 after seeing the damage to the pipeline. About 140 people were evacuated starting about 12:15 a.m. Saturday due to concerns about possible explosions and the overpowering fumes. All were allowed to return after instruments showed petroleum odors had decreased, although no information was available regarding the concentrations of benzene in air. Speculation involves high water flow in the Yellowstone River may have scoured the river bed and exposed the pipe. Consequently, with three oil refineries are located in the Billings area, the fire chief for the city of Laurel said he asked all three to turn off the flow of oil in their pipelines under the river after the leak was reported. ExxonMobil and Cenex Harvest Refinery did so, and that Conoco Phillips said its pipe was already shutdown. Cenex had a release into the Yellowstone River in September 2002. Exxon Mobil later announced the cleanup would cost $135 million.

**2011 – On July 22, A pipeline carrying jet fuel ruptured in Mango, Florida. About 31,500 US gallons (119,000 L) of fuel spilled. There was no fire or injuries.

2011 – On August 13, an 8 inch diameter NGL pipeline ruptured near Onowa, Iowa at a Missouri River crossing, during flooding conditions. About 818 barrels of NGL’s were lost. There were no evacuations or injuries, but 2 other pipelines in the same right of way were forced to shut down.

**2011 – On August 31, a pipeline carrying heating oil was hit by construction workers in East Providence, Rhode Island, spraying oil on roofs, trees, and pavement, and flowed into storm drains. At least 56,000 US gallons (210,000 L) of oil were spilled.

2011 – On September 20, a farmer digging to lay drainage tile hit a 10 inch diameter gasoline pipeline near Aurelius, New York, spilling about 3,300 US gallons (12 m3) of gasoline. There was no fire or injuries.

2011 – On October 12, a 2 inch diameter crude oil gathering pipeline failed in Oklahoma, spilling about 120 barrels of oil. There were no injuries or fire from the failure.

***2011 – On December 10, a landowner using a bulldozer hit a 8 inch diameter and a 12 inch diameter petroleum pipelines near Nemaha, Nebraska, rupturing both lines. The spill size was estimated to be 119,000 gallons of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel. Some of the fuels flowed into a creek leading into Jasper Creek. There were questions about the depth of soil coverage for this pipeline.

***2012 – On January 12, late, Sunoco pipeline ruptured and spilled about 117,000 gallons of gasoline in Wellington, Ohio. Some residents were evacuated for a week.

2012 – On January 31, a fuel pipeline to the Milwaukee, Wisconsin Mitchell International Airport was found leaking. Jet fuel had been smelled for about 2 weeks in the area, and was found in runoff water in the area.

2012 – On March 3, two cars that were drag racing went off the road they were on, and crash through a fence and into a crude oil pipeline in New Lenox, Illinois on March 3. The pipeline was ruptured, and the crude oil ignited. Two men from the vehicles were killed, and 3 others seriously burned.

*2012 – On March 17, a crude oil pipeline leaked near Grand Isle, Louisiana, spilling as much as 8,400 gallons of crude oil. There were no injuries reported for this one, thankfully.

(The above information is mainly from Wikipedia.)

So, Harper and Enbridge and Kinder Morgan, and Exxon for that matter, are telling us that this list will end in Louisiana, and won’t ever come to British Columbia?  Just how stupid do they think we are?

Why Pipelines Don’t “Leak”, But Explode


Why pipelines don’t “leak”, but explode


On December 19, 2010, an oil pipeline in Mexico exploded, killing at least 27 people and injured more than 50. The explosion is believed to have been caused by attempts to puncture the pipe to steal oil.

The same thing happened in Nigeria not once, not twice, but numerous times. Here are a few examples from Wikipedia:
*1998, October 17: At Jesse in the Niger Delta in Nigeria, a petroleum pipeline exploded killing about 1200 villagers, some of whom were scavenging gasoline.
*2000, July 10: Pipeline explosion near the town of Jesse killed about 250 villagers.
*2000, July 16: At least 100 villagers died when a ruptured pipeline exploded in Warri.
*2000, November 30: A leaking pipeline caught fire near the fishing village of Ebute near Lagos, killing at least 60 people.
*2003, June 19: A pipeline punctured by thieves exploded and killed 125 villagers near Umuahia, Abia State.
*2004, September 17: A pipeline punctured by thieves exploded and killed dozens of people in Lagos State.
*2006, May 12: An oil pipeline punctured by thieves exploded and killed 150 people at the Atlas Creek Island in Lagos State.
*2006, December 26: A vandalised oil pipeline exploded in Lagos. Up to 500 people may have been killed.
*2008, May 16: The Ijegun pipeline explosion caused by an accidental rupture by a bulldozer. Up to 100 may have been killed, including many school children in the nearby school.

Mind you, these are gasoline pipelines. If the contents were less flammable, like dilbit (diluted bitumen from the tar sands), the result would be an explosive “spill”, with or without fire.

Why explosive, and not just a faucet-like “leak”? Let me put physics into laymen terms:

The air pressure inside your tire is about 30 pounds per square inch (psi), enough to support the weight of your car. Double or triple it and your tire might explode, especially when heated by driving, or when traumatized when running over a sharp rock at speed.

The water pressure inside your domestic plumbing is about 50 psi, 70 psi is considered too high.

The water pressure inside a fire hydrant can exceed 200 psi – why it is also used for riot control.

The pressure applied on the oil inside a pipeline on flat ground can exceed 500 psi. The higher the pressure, the faster the oil flows, the faster the Big Oil CEOs and oiled political puppets laugh all the way to the bank.

The pressure applied on the oil inside an ascending pipeline could exceed 1,000 psi, depending on the elevation gain. To illustrate how high such a pressure is, the water pressure at 3,000 ft. depth equals 1,350 psi, which can crunch a submarine like a pop-can. This is the pressure of the oil inside a pipeline in the valley, about to ascend a 3,000 ft. mountain pass in British Columbia. You need to generate that much pressure inside the pipe to force the oil up 3,000 ft. This is why pipeline-ruptures tend to occur in valleys, where rivers run.

And now, there is a new flexible pipeline technology that is theoretically capable of withstanding, ready? 15,000 psi! Compare this to the fire hydrant. This if used as we do today, i.e. at 1,000 psi, they would be safer than the conventional pipelines. But then again, there is the human factor, i.e. greed, and of course the CEOs and their puppets would want to max out the throughput, and force the dilbit at 14,000 psi. But then, shit happens, and will always happen, and when they do, such a “spill” will indeed make the Kalamazoo spill look like a kitchen faucet leak.

And what if the pipelines are relatively safer, the tankers will always be dangerous, especially given the climate change to come. To say that supertanker spills in BC waters won’t happen is like saying that the Titantic is “unsinkable”, or the Bismarck. And they didn’t even say “knock on wood”.

Anthony Marr, Founder and President
Heal Our Planet Earth (HOPE)
Global Anti-Hunting Coalition (GAHC)
Anthony-Marr@HOPE-CARE.org
http://www.HOPE-CARE.org
http://www.facebook.com/Anthony.Marr.001
http://www.facebook.com/Global_Anti-Hunting_Coalition
http://www.myspace.com/AnthonyMarr
http://www.youtube.com/AnthonyMarr
http://www.HomoSapiensSaveYourEarth.blogspot.com
http://www.DearHomoSapiens.blogspot.com
http://www.AnthonyMarr13.wordpress.com

The Saviour Species launches Asteroid Warning System


We Homo Sapiens have a death wish, in fact, more death wishes than one. For one thing, we are rushing headlong, knowingly, down a course of self-destruction. And for another, we consciously wish death on ourselves and extinction upon our own species.

While the former is evident everywhere we look, the latter is prevalent especially in the animal rights and environmental movements. It goes something like this: “We are evil and cruel and a scourge against all life on Earth. If we go extinct, the planet would return to Eden. Human abuse of animals shall cease. Therefore, we should go extinct.” I might have said so myself once upon a time. There are even popular television shows like [Life After People] which illustrates how the post-human planet would regain its pre-human ecological balance, and all species would live happily ever after.

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All species could and likely would live happily ever after without humans, but for one factor which would seal their fate, the collective fate of global instantaneous mass extinction. Asteroids.

Not if but when – another big one will come smashing down which could do unto the mammals and birds what the last one 64 million years ago did unto the dinosaurs. It is a certainty, and it is statistically over-due. It could be another million years, but it could also be next month. It is a matter of time. And when it is all said and done, the tigers, the elephants, the eagles, the dolphin, the whales…, will all be wiped out with or without our help. Nothing can be done about it once the impact has occurred. But we, our species Homo Sapiens, can help by diverting the asteroid from Earth.

Case in point, witness the June 8, 2012, Huffington Post article [Asteroid Warning System: Report Calls For International Effort To Avert Possible Catastrophe]:
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/08/asteroid-warning-system-report-catastrophe_n_1580371.html

Indeed, on this planet, at this time, short of alien or divine intervention, ours is the only species that can carry out such a world-saving mission. Forget not that it was a human being who said: “With the power comes the responsibility”.

Sooner or later, if we survive ourselves in the mean time, we will prove our worth as a Universe-honoured “Saviour Species”.

Even without this consideration, our species is not ALL cruel nor ALL evil, we are also kind and compassionate. Our dark side is pitch black, but our bright side is brilliant. To condemn and wish extinction on the entire species is to “throw the baby out with the bath water.” Do let us by all means discard the bath water, but we must nurture the baby who will grow up to be a saviour.

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Anthony Marr, Founder and President
Heal Our Planet Earth (HOPE)
Global Anti-Hunting Coalition (GAHC)
Anthony-Marr@HOPE-CARE.org
http://www.HOPE-CARE.org
http://www.facebook.com/Anthony.Marr.001
http://www.facebook.com/Global_Anti-Hunting_Coalition
http://www.myspace.com/AnthonyMarr
http://www.youtube.com/AnthonyMarr
http://www.HomoSapiensSaveYourEarth.blogspot.com
http://www.DearHomoSapiens.blogspot.com
http://www.AnthonyMarr13.wordpress.com

Shark-fin-ban urged for Vancouver and Richmond


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This is about banning shark fins outright, immediately or sooner, not about voluntary withdrawal over years and decades, “one bowl at a time”. The sharks just can’t wait that long!

Shark-finning is obscenely cruel. Half of all shark species are endangered. And 90 million sharks die every year for nothing worthier than ultra-expensive bowls of liquid prestige.

The gradualistic voluntary-withdrawal approach is presumably, to put it bluntly, so that the Chinese people wouldn’t lose face. But as a Chinese Canadian, I want shark fins outright banned, ASAP please. Continued consumption and commerce for years if not decades, with the whole world looking on, can only further embarrass those good Chinese people who are against consuming such products, such as myself, and further damage the Chinese reputation as well as the reputation of otherwise relatively civilized cities like Vancouver.

Whale shark definned:

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For the state of the movement, the following Canadian cities and Pacific Rim U.S. states have banned shark fins outright:

Canadian cities: Brantford (ON), Coquitlam (BC), Mississauga (ON), Port Moody (BC), Toronto (ON)

U.S. Pacific states: California, Oregon the Washington state-wide.

Conspicuously absent, especially to me in the Lower Mainland on the Canadian Pacific Rim, are the two major shark-fins-consuming centres of Vancouver and Richmond. We want them to be shark-fins-free zones simultaneously, such that no buck can be passed back and forth. We could include Victoria at this point, but few if not none would take a two hour ferry ride just to have a bowl of shark-fin soup. Further, if Vancouver and Richmond both come down with a ban, others including Victoria, Nanaimo, Burnaby and New Westminster will follow suit, that already set by Coquitlam and Port Moody.

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My friend Marley Daviduk of the Vancouver animal Defence League has taken upon herself to contact all Vancouver and Richmond city councillors to see where they stand, and to seek their cooperation. One Vancouver councillor in favour of an outright ban to whom Marley has spoken offered her the following advice:

[If/when the city councillors receive large amounts of emails urging an outright ban, they will work towards an outright ban. If there is no pressure on city hall to change, nothing will change in the street.]

Abiding by this wisdom, we ask all, whether you live in Vancouver, Richmond or elsewhere, to email the following mayors and city councillors:

mayorandcouncillors@richmond.ca, mayor.corrigan@burnaby.ca, gregor.robertson@vancouver.ca, clraffleck@vancouver.ca, clrball@vancouver.ca, clrcarr@vancouver.ca, clrdeal@vancouver.ca, clrjang@vancouver.ca, clrmeggs@vancouver.ca, clrreimer@vancouver.ca, clrstevenson@vancouver.ca, clrtang@vancouver.ca

And please share this request on. The sharks depend on us!

Here is my contribution:

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Dear mayors and councillors of Vancouver, Richmond and Burnaby:

We all know that shark-finning is extremely cruel, that half of the world’s shark species are endangered, that 90 million sharks are finned per year around the world, and thousands of shark fins from unknown species find their ways into Vancouver, Richmond and Burnaby.

We also know that Canadian cities including Brantford (ON), Coquitlam (BC), Mississauga (ON), Port Moody (BC) and Toronto (ON), and all three American Pacific states of California, Oregon and Washington, have banned shark-fins outright. Conspicuously absent are the Canadian Pacific Lower Mainland cities of Vancouver, Richmond and Burnaby, where it should have all begun. But better late than never.

I am aware that there may be a VOLUNTARY WITHDRAWAL program ongoing between city hall and certain groups, but such a strategy will take years if not decades to take significant effect. The sharks, especially their endangered species, simply do not have the time, and with every year’s delay, another 90 million sharks die horrible death, for no higher purpose than the prestige of certain consumers and the profit of certain merchants, and the face of certain communities.

I urge immediate action for also a personal reason. As one among thousands of Chinese Canadians who are against the use of shark fins, I feel daily embarrassed by the continuation of this vile practice in my home city, and the vile language I’ve heard used against the Chinese people because of it.

I am writing to strongly urge an outright ban as soon as possible, and request your constructive response at your earliest convenience.

The current gradualistic approach does have a place, and that is to educate the Chinese people why there is a ban, but first, there ought to be a ban.

Thank you for your attention.

Sincerely,

Anthony Marr, Founder and President
Heal Our Planet Earth (HOPE)
Vancouver

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Please write your own and send it in. It does not have to be long. If you are busy, just “I am writing to urge an outright ban of shark fins in Vancouver” will do very nicely. Thank you!

Anthony Marr, Founder and President
Heal Our Planet Earth (HOPE)
Global Anti-Hunting Coalition (GAHC)
Anthony-Marr@HOPE-CARE.org
http://www.HOPE-CARE.org
http://www.facebook.com/Anthony.Marr.001
http://www.facebook.com/Global_Anti-Hunting_Coalition
http://www.myspace.com/AnthonyMarr
http://www.youtube.com/AnthonyMarr
http://www.HomoSapiensSaveYourEarth.blogspot.com
http://www.DearHomoSapiens.blogspot.com
http://www.AnthonyMarr13.wordpress.com
http://www.ARConference.org

“If the world is on the brink, why am I not feeling it?”


Referring to the Huffington article [World Nearing Tipping Point For Disastrous Breakdown, Study Finds], someone asked me, “If the world is on the brink, why don’t we feel it?”

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The answer is three-fold:

1.  Earth’s atmosphere and hydrosphere are both immense.  Any cause-input will take 2-3 decades to produce the effect-output.  This said, the cause-input began becoming significant as of about mid-last-century, and it has been continuous and increasing.  So, in spite of the time lag, we’ve had measurable results, chief amongst which is the 0.9C mean global temperature rise from the baseline of 1880 when the Industrial Revolution began.  Also more than obvious are the melting glaciers around the world, including those in the Himalayas, Greenland and the Antarctic, and the Arctic sea ice.  Of course none of these is in anyone’s backyard, so, for those with no or little awareness beyond their own physical or event horizons, “nothing is happening”.

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2.  Carbon dioxide is a stable gas and is therefore cumulative in the atmosphere to continue warming the planet for centuries to come.  Even if we stopped burning fossil fuels yesterday, what we have already pumped into the atmosphere will be enough to trigger the deadly Methane Time Bomb.  But, for now, nothing SEEMS to be happening, and we carry on business as usual.

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3.  Least known is the mechanism of LATENT (hidden) HEAT.  Anyone who does not know what Latent Heat is will have a false sense of security.  It is not hard to understand if I do not use physics jargon.  Place on a hot stove a pot of cold water containing 1 kg of ice cubes.  Stir the ice water with a long thermometer and take temperature readings.  My question is:  When will the thermometer begin to show a rise in temperature?  Answer: After all the ice has melted.  In other words, all the heat from the stove would first all go into melting the ice, WITHOUT RAISING THE WATER TEMPERATURE.  The amount of heat entering a system WITHOUT raising the temperature of the system is called Latent Heat.  It takes 80 calories of heat to melt one gram of ice.  So in this case, the first 80,000 calories of heat from the stove went into melting the 1 kg of ice first.  Only when the ice is all gone will the water temperature rise, and it will do so until it reaches 100C, when the water will begin to boil.  Once again, Latent Heat comes into play, and the water temperature will stabilize at the boiling point – until all the water have changed from liquid to vapour, at which point the temperature of the dry pot will rise to the temperature of the flame itself.  So how does this apply to Earth’s climate?  Consider the Arctic Ocean to be a gigantic pot of ice water, and the sun as the stove.  For as long as there is still sea ice to melt, the Arctic Ocean will remain relatively cool, in spite of the ever increasing solar heat entering the Arctic ocean due to ever decreasing ice cover.  When the sea ice is gone in the summer, as early as the latter part of this decade, the Arctic Ocean’s temperature WILL STEEPLY RISE, and when it does, so will the global mean temperature, and all hell will break lose.

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So, enjoy the “Arctic Air Conditioner” while it lasts, and be prepared to sweat after it quits.  And when it happens, believe me, you WILL FEEL THE HEAT!